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55 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
  • Research software
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  • European Commission
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wolff, Eric William; Mulvaney, Robert; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Hoffmann, Helene; +1 Authors

    We present an age model for the 651 m deep Skytrain Ice Rise ice core (79°44.5'S, 78°32.7'W). The top 2000 years have previously been dated using age markers interpolated through annual layer counting. Below this, we align the Skytrain core to the AICC2012 age model using tie points in the ice and air phase, and apply the Paleochrono program to obtain the best fit to the tie points and glaciological constraints. In the gas phase, ties are made using methane and, in critical sections, δ18Oair; in the ice phase ties are through 10Be across the Laschamps Event, and through ice chemistry related to long-range dust transport and deposition. This strategy provides a good outcome to about 108 ka (~605 m). Beyond that there are signs of flow disturbance, with a section of ice probably repeated. Nonetheless values of CH4 and δ18Oair confirm that part of the last interglacial (LIG), from about 117-126 ka (617-628 m), is present and in chronological order. Below this there are clear signs of stratigraphic disturbance, with rapid oscillation of values in both the ice and gas phase at the base of the LIG section. Based on methane values, the warmest part of the LIG and the coldest part of the penultimate glacial are missing from our record. Ice below 631 m appears to be of age >150 ka.

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    Authors: Brugnara, Yuri; Horn, Michael; Salvador, Isabella;

    We provide two instrumental records of air pressure and temperature for the Alpine cities of Rovereto and Bolzano/Bozen, covering the periods 1800-1839 and 1842-1873, respectively. They were measured by local physics teachers and digitized at the University of Bern from a handwritten weather diary and a local newspaper. In addition to the raw (sub-daily) data, we provide daily and monthly means together with a quantitative estimation of their uncertainty. The data were converted to modern units, quality controlled, and homogenized.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Spilling, Kristian; Piiparinen, Jonna; Achterberg, Eric Pieter; Arístegui, Javier; +9 Authors

    The data is from a mesocosm experiment set up outside Lima, Peru to study the influence of upwelling of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) water. The mesocosm bags were 2 m in diameter and extended from the surface down to 19 m depth, where the last 2 m was a conical sediment trap. Eight mesocosm bags were used and they were moored at 12.0555°S; 77.2348°W just north of Isla San Lorenzo where the water depth is ~30 m. The experiment was started 25 February 2017 by closing the mesocosm bags and were run for 50 days. Two treatments were used (water with different OMZ signature), each with four replicates. Water (100 m3) from the OMZ was collected from two locations and depths. The first was collected from 12.028323°S; 77.223603°W from 30 m depth, and the second one from 12.044333°S; 77.377583°W from 70 m depth. The original aim was to collect severe and moderate OMZ signature water (differing in e.g. nitrate concentrations) from the first and second site, respectively. This assumption was based on long-term monitoring data, however, the chemical properties (e.g. nitrate concentration) was more similar in these water masses than anticipated, rather reflecting low and very low OMZ signatures from site 1 and 2 respectively. To have a baseline of measured variables, the mesocosms where closed and environmental and biological variables were determined over 10 days. After this period, the OMZ water was added to the mesocosms in two steps on day 11 and 12 after the enclosure of the mesocosms. As the mesocosms contain a specific volume (~54 m3), the process of adding the OMZ water started with first removing water from the mesocosms. The water removed (~20 m3) was pumped out from 11-12 m depth. A similar volume of OMZ water, from both collection sites, was then pumped into four replicate mesocosms each. The OMZ water was pumped into the mesocosms moving the input hose between 14-17 m depth. The water collected at 30 m depth was pumped into mesocosms M1, M4, M5 and M8 having a low OMZ signature and water from 70 m depth into mesocosms M2, M3, M6 and M7 having a very low OMZ signature. Due a halocline at 12 m depth (see below), the added OMZ water was not immediately mixed throughout the mesocosm bag. Sampling took place every second day over a period of 50 days, and all variables were taken with an integrated water sampler (HydroBios, IWS) pre-programed to fill from 0 – 10 m depth and all samples consisted of this integrated samples from the upper 10 m. The samples were stored dark in cool boxes and brought back to the laboratory and processed right away. Sampling took place in the morning, and the samples were usually back in the laboratory around noon. Measured variables included inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic nutrients, extracellular enzyme activity: leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase, and the phytoplankton and bacterial community composition.

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    Authors: Brandon, Margaux; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Michel, Elisabeth; Landais, Amaëlle; +6 Authors

    Micropaleontological (coccolith, planktonic foraminifera) and geochemical (CaCO3, CaXRF, δ18O N. pachyderma, δ13C N. pachyderma) analyses from sediment core MD04-2718 retrieved from the Subantarctic zone (SAZ) of the Indian Southern Ocean covering the time interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 10 (440,000– 360,000 years). Coccolith abundances and masses were performed using SYRACO software at Geoscience Paris-Saclay Laboratory (GEOPS). CaCO3 percentages were also measured at GEOPS. Foraminifera abundances and masses and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were performed at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). SST were calculated using two methods : the Modern Analogue Technique (Haddam et al., 2016) and the percentage of N. pachyderma s. (Govin et al., 2009). CaXRF measurements were performed at ETH, Zurich. These approaches allowed to decipher the variations in Carbonate Counter Pump and upwelling strength in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean between MIS 12 and MIS 10, including the Termination V and interglacial MIS 11.

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio;
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    Authors: Kopp, Robert E.; Rasmussen, D. J.;

    This MATLAB code is intended to help end-users who wish to work with the sea-level rise projections of Kopp et al. (2014) and successor papers in greater detail than provided by the supplementary tables accompanying that table but without re-running the full global analysis using the supplementary code accompanying the paper. Key functionality these routines provide include: 1. Local sea-level rise projections at decadal time points and arbitrary quantiles 2. Localized Monte Carlo samples, disaggregatable by contributory process 3. Localized variance decomposition plots This code was originally developed to accompany the results of R. E. Kopp, R. M. Horton, C. M. Little, J. X. Mitrovica, M. Oppenheimer, D. J. Rasmussen, B. H. Strauss, and C. Tebaldi (2014). Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tide gauge sites. Earth's Future 2: 287–306, doi:10.1002/2014EF000239. Please cite that paper, along with the paper(s) associated with the specific projections you are using, when using any sea-level rise projections generated with this code.

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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

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    Authors: Vogt, Meike; Benedetti, Fabio; Righetti, Damiano; O'Brien, Colleen; +3 Authors
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    Authors: Erhardt, Tobias; Bigler, Matthias; Federer, Urs; Gfeller, Gideon; +20 Authors

    Records of chemical impurities from ice cores enable us to reconstruct the past deposition of aerosols onto polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Through this they allow us to gain insight into changes of the source, transport and deposition processes that ultimately determine the deposition flux at the coring location. However, the low concentrations of the aerosol species in the ice and the resulting high risk of contamination pose a formidable analytical challenge, especially if long, continuous and highly resolved records are needed. Continuous flow analysis, CFA, the continuous melting, decontamination and analysis of ice-core samples has mostly overcome this issue and has quickly become the de facto standard to obtain high-resolution aerosol records from ice cores after its inception at the University of Bern in the mid-1990s. Here, we present continuous records of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and electrolytic conductivity at 1 mm depth resolution from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) and NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice cores produced by the Bern Continuous Flow Analysis group in the years 2000 to 2011 (Erhardt et al., 2021). Both of the records were previously used in a number of studies but were never published in full 1 mm resolution. Alongside the 1 mm datasets we provide decadal averages, a detailed description of the methods, relevant references, an assessment of the quality of the data and its usable resolution. Along the way we will also give some historical context on the development of the Bern CFA system. The data is available in full 1 mm and 10-year-averaged resolution on PANGAEA (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.935838, Erhardt et al., 2021)

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    Authors: Wolff, Eric William; Mulvaney, Robert; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Hoffmann, Helene; +1 Authors

    We present an age model for the 651 m deep Skytrain Ice Rise ice core (79°44.5'S, 78°32.7'W). The top 2000 years have previously been dated using age markers interpolated through annual layer counting. Below this, we align the Skytrain core to the AICC2012 age model using tie points in the ice and air phase, and apply the Paleochrono program to obtain the best fit to the tie points and glaciological constraints. In the gas phase, ties are made using methane and, in critical sections, δ18Oair; in the ice phase ties are through 10Be across the Laschamps Event, and through ice chemistry related to long-range dust transport and deposition. This strategy provides a good outcome to about 108 ka (~605 m). Beyond that there are signs of flow disturbance, with a section of ice probably repeated. Nonetheless values of CH4 and δ18Oair confirm that part of the last interglacial (LIG), from about 117-126 ka (617-628 m), is present and in chronological order. Below this there are clear signs of stratigraphic disturbance, with rapid oscillation of values in both the ice and gas phase at the base of the LIG section. Based on methane values, the warmest part of the LIG and the coldest part of the penultimate glacial are missing from our record. Ice below 631 m appears to be of age >150 ka.

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    Authors: Brugnara, Yuri; Horn, Michael; Salvador, Isabella;

    We provide two instrumental records of air pressure and temperature for the Alpine cities of Rovereto and Bolzano/Bozen, covering the periods 1800-1839 and 1842-1873, respectively. They were measured by local physics teachers and digitized at the University of Bern from a handwritten weather diary and a local newspaper. In addition to the raw (sub-daily) data, we provide daily and monthly means together with a quantitative estimation of their uncertainty. The data were converted to modern units, quality controlled, and homogenized.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Spilling, Kristian; Piiparinen, Jonna; Achterberg, Eric Pieter; Arístegui, Javier; +9 Authors

    The data is from a mesocosm experiment set up outside Lima, Peru to study the influence of upwelling of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) water. The mesocosm bags were 2 m in diameter and extended from the surface down to 19 m depth, where the last 2 m was a conical sediment trap. Eight mesocosm bags were used and they were moored at 12.0555°S; 77.2348°W just north of Isla San Lorenzo where the water depth is ~30 m. The experiment was started 25 February 2017 by closing the mesocosm bags and were run for 50 days. Two treatments were used (water with different OMZ signature), each with four replicates. Water (100 m3) from the OMZ was collected from two locations and depths. The first was collected from 12.028323°S; 77.223603°W from 30 m depth, and the second one from 12.044333°S; 77.377583°W from 70 m depth. The original aim was to collect severe and moderate OMZ signature water (differing in e.g. nitrate concentrations) from the first and second site, respectively. This assumption was based on long-term monitoring data, however, the chemical properties (e.g. nitrate concentration) was more similar in these water masses than anticipated, rather reflecting low and very low OMZ signatures from site 1 and 2 respectively. To have a baseline of measured variables, the mesocosms where closed and environmental and biological variables were determined over 10 days. After this period, the OMZ water was added to the mesocosms in two steps on day 11 and 12 after the enclosure of the mesocosms. As the mesocosms contain a specific volume (~54 m3), the process of adding the OMZ water started with first removing water from the mesocosms. The water removed (~20 m3) was pumped out from 11-12 m depth. A similar volume of OMZ water, from both collection sites, was then pumped into four replicate mesocosms each. The OMZ water was pumped into the mesocosms moving the input hose between 14-17 m depth. The water collected at 30 m depth was pumped into mesocosms M1, M4, M5 and M8 having a low OMZ signature and water from 70 m depth into mesocosms M2, M3, M6 and M7 having a very low OMZ signature. Due a halocline at 12 m depth (see below), the added OMZ water was not immediately mixed throughout the mesocosm bag. Sampling took place every second day over a period of 50 days, and all variables were taken with an integrated water sampler (HydroBios, IWS) pre-programed to fill from 0 – 10 m depth and all samples consisted of this integrated samples from the upper 10 m. The samples were stored dark in cool boxes and brought back to the laboratory and processed right away. Sampling took place in the morning, and the samples were usually back in the laboratory around noon. Measured variables included inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic nutrients, extracellular enzyme activity: leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase, and the phytoplankton and bacterial community composition.

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    Authors: Brandon, Margaux; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Michel, Elisabeth; Landais, Amaëlle; +6 Authors

    Micropaleontological (coccolith, planktonic foraminifera) and geochemical (CaCO3, CaXRF, δ18O N. pachyderma, δ13C N. pachyderma) analyses from sediment core MD04-2718 retrieved from the Subantarctic zone (SAZ) of the Indian Southern Ocean covering the time interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 10 (440,000– 360,000 years). Coccolith abundances and masses were performed using SYRACO software at Geoscience Paris-Saclay Laboratory (GEOPS). CaCO3 percentages were also measured at GEOPS. Foraminifera abundances and masses and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were performed at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). SST were calculated using two methods : the Modern Analogue Technique (Haddam et al., 2016) and the percentage of N. pachyderma s. (Govin et al., 2009). CaXRF measurements were performed at ETH, Zurich. These approaches allowed to decipher the variations in Carbonate Counter Pump and upwelling strength in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean between MIS 12 and MIS 10, including the Termination V and interglacial MIS 11.

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio;
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    Authors: Kopp, Robert E.; Rasmussen, D. J.;

    This MATLAB code is intended to help end-users who wish to work with the sea-level rise projections of Kopp et al. (2014) and successor papers in greater detail than provided by the supplementary tables accompanying that table but without re-running the full global analysis using the supplementary code accompanying the paper. Key functionality these routines provide include: 1. Local sea-level rise projections at decadal time points and arbitrary quantiles 2. Localized Monte Carlo samples, disaggregatable by contributory process 3. Localized variance decomposition plots This code was originally developed to accompany the results of R. E. Kopp, R. M. Horton, C. M. Little, J. X. Mitrovica, M. Oppenheimer, D. J. Rasmussen, B. H. Strauss, and C. Tebaldi (2014). Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tide gauge sites. Earth's Future 2: 287–306, doi:10.1002/2014EF000239. Please cite that paper, along with the paper(s) associated with the specific projections you are using, when using any sea-level rise projections generated with this code.

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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors