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  • Open Access Finnish
    Authors: 
    Enroth, Björn;
    Country: Finland

    Tämän diplomityön tarkoituksena on määrittää teknologiset vaihtoehdot lämpöenergian talteenotolle, varastoinnille ja hyödyntämiselle Itämeren alueen avustavalle jäänmurtajalle. Lämpöenergian talteenoton ja varastoinnin tarkoituksena on alentaa polttoaineen kulutusta, päästöjä ja käyttökustannuksia. Kansainvälisen merenkulun päästöjä tulee vähentää 50 % vuoden 2008 tasosta vuoteen 2050 mennessä. Päästötavoitteen saavuttaminen vaatii alusten energiatehokkuuden parantamista sekä vaihtoehtoisten polttoaineiden käyttöönottoa. Dieselmoottorin hyötysuhde on jo lähes 50 %. Suurin osa jäljelle jäävästä energiasta esiintyy lämpöenergiana pakokaasuissa ja jäähdytysvedessä. Tätä lämpöenergiaa voidaan ottaa talteen, varastoida ja hyödyntää aluksen sekä sen eri järjestelmien lämmittämiseen. Jäänmurtajan vaihtelevasta käyttöprofiilista johtuen talteen otettavan lämpöenergian ja sen kulutuksen suhde eivät useimmissa operointitapauksissa ole samanaikaisia. Työssä esitetään laskennallisesti jäänmurtajan lämpötase. Laskennan ja määritettyjen teknologisten vaihtoehtojen perusteella lämpöenergian talteenotto ja varastointi on kannattavaa. The meaning of this Master’s thesis is to evaluate the technologies for waste heat recovery, thermal energy storage and utilization for the assisting Baltic Sea area icebreaker. The meaning of waste heat recovery and thermal energy storage is to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and operational costs. The emissions from the international shipping should be reduced by at least 50 % by year 2050 compared to year 2008. In order to achieve the goal measures has to be taken. These measures are better energy efficiency and introduction of alternative fuels. The energy efficiency of a modern diesel engine is close to 50 %. Most of the remaining energy is in form of thermal energy in exhaust gases and cooling water. This thermal energy may be recovered, stored and utilized for the heating of the vessel and its systems. An icebreaker operates on varying engine loads and because of this the production and usage of thermal energy is not always concurrently. Based on the calculations in this thesis it is profitable to recover and store thermal energy onboard an icebreaker.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Khalili Maybodi, Siavash;
    Country: Finland

    The pivotal target of the Paris Agreement is to keep temperature rise well below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level and pursue efforts to limit temperature rise to 1.5 °C. In order to meet this target, all energy consuming sectors including the transport sector need to be restructured. The transport sector accounted for 19% of the global final energy demand in 2015, of which the vast majority was supplied by fossil fuels, of around 31,080 TWh. Fossil fuel consumption leads to greenhouse gas emissions, which accounted for about 8260 MtCO2eq from the transport sector in 2015. This paper examines the transportation demand that can be expected and how alternative transportation technologies along with new sustainable energy sources can impact the energy demand and emissions trend in the transport sector until 2050. Battery electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are the two most promising technologies for the future on roads. Electric ships and airplanes for shorter distances and hydrogen-based synthetic fuels for longer distances may appear around 2030 onwards to reduce the emissions from the marine and aviation transport modes. The rail mode will stay the least energy-demanding, compared to the other transport modes. An ambitious scenario for achieving zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 is applied, also demonstrating the very high relevance of direct and indirect electrification of the transport sector. Fossil fuel demand can be reduced to zero by 2050, however, the electricity demand is projected to rise from 125 TWhel in 2015 to about 51,610 TWhel in 2050, substantially driven by indirect electricity demand for the production of synthetic fuels. While the transportation demand roughly triples from 2015 to 2050, substantial efficiency gains enable an almost stable final energy demand for the transport sector, as a consequence of broad electrification. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency in the transport sector increases from 26% in 2015 to 39% in 2050, resulting in a respective reduction of overall losses from primary energy to mechanical energy in vehicles. Power-to-fuels needed mainly for marine and aviation transport is not a significant burden for the overall transport sector efficiency. The primary energy base of the transport sector switches in the next decades from fossil resources to renewable electricity, driven by higher efficiency and sustainability.