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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dagmara Rusiecka;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Triple threat processes and/or other forcings can lead to changes in the ocean happening fast and abruptly. These changes, referred to as “tipping points”, are critical thresholds in a marine system that, when exceeded, can lead to a significant change in the state of the system, which often can be irreversible. This leaflet has been prepared mainly (but not only) for high school pupils with the financial support of Norges forskningsråd (309382).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English

    This work implements variants of deep learning algorithms for the task of landmark detection in fish bio-images

  • Open Access English

    AIBECS v0.13.1 Diff since v0.13.0 Merged pull requests: CompatHelper: bump compat for Interpolations to 0.14, (keep existing compat) (#93) (@github-actions[bot])

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    Greenland ice cores provide information about past climate. Few impurity records covering the past 2 decades exist from Greenland. Here we present results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse made in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep-drilling stations situated on the western side and eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analyzed for chemical impurities and cover time spans of 18 to 53 years (±3 years) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. The high temporal resolution allows for annual layers and seasons to be resolved. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the six firn cores overlap, and the seasonal cycles are also similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations, H2O2 driven by the accumulation pattern, and conductivity likely influenced by sea salt. Overall, we determine a rather constant dust flux over the period, but in the data from recent years (1998–2015) we identify an increase in large dust particles that we ascribe to an activation of local Greenland sources. We observe an expected increase in acidity and conductivity in the mid-1970s as a result of anthropogenic emissions, followed by a decrease due to mitigation. Several volcanic horizons identified in the conductivity and acidity records can be associated with eruptions in Iceland and in the Barents Sea region. From a composite ammonium record we obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires (R=0.49).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rafter, Patrick A.; Gray, William R.; Hines, Sophia K.V.; Burke, Andrea; Costa, Kassandra M.; Gottschalk, Julia; Hain, Mathis P.; Rae, James W.B.; Southon, John R.; Walczak, Maureen H.; +3 more
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This uses the dataset stored at PANGAEA: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.946522 Abstract from the paper: Using new and published marine fossil radiocarbon (14C/C) measurements—a tracer uniquely sensitive to circulation and air-sea gas exchange—we establish several benchmarks for Atlantic, Southern, and Pacific deep-sea circulation and ventilation since the last ice age. We find the most 14C-depleted water in glacial Pacific bottom depths, rather than the mid-depths as they are today, which is best explained by a slowdown in glacial deep-sea overturning in addition to a “flipped” glacial Pacific overturning configuration. These observations cannot be produced by changes in air-sea gas exchange alone, and they underscore the major role for changes in the overturning circulation for glacial deep-sea carbon storage in the vast Pacific abyss, and the concomitant drawdown of atmospheric CO2. The "step0" file updates the age model of sites using planktic foram 14C to the Intcal20 dataset, assuming the Marine20 reservoir age model. Sites north of 40N or south of 40S need an additional reservoir age added, which is added via the "Delta.R" column. See main text for more details. The "step1" file of this code (written for R) estimates the binned average and standard error plus the loess trends for deep-sea 14C/C for the past 25,000 years BP. The "step2" file makes a simple plot of the data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Droste, Elise S.; Hoppema, Mario; González-Dávila, Melchor; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; Queste, Bastien Y.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Venables, Hugh J.; Rohardt, Gerd; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Schuller, Daniel; +2 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879)

    Tides significantly affect polar coastlines by modulating ice shelf melt and modifying shelf water properties through transport and mixing. However, the effect of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry in such regions, especially around Antarctica, remains largely unexplored. We address this topic with two case studies in a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea, neighbouring the Ekström Ice Shelf. The case studies were conducted in January 2015 (PS89) and January 2019 (PS117), capturing semi-diurnal oscillations in the water column. These are pronounced in both physical and biogeochemical variables for PS89. During rising tide, advection of sea ice meltwater from the north-east created a fresher, warmer, and more deeply mixed water column with lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) content. During ebbing tide, water from underneath the ice shelf decreased the polynya's temperature, increased the DIC and TA content, and created a more stratified water column. The variability during the PS117 case study was much smaller, as it had less sea ice meltwater input during rising tide and was better mixed with sub-ice shelf water. The contrasts in the variability between the two case studies could be wind and sea ice driven, and they underline the complexity and highly dynamic nature of the system. The variability in the polynya induced by the tides results in an air–sea CO2 flux that can range between a strong sink (−24 mmol m−2 d−1) and a small source (3 mmol m−2 d−1) on a semi-diurnal timescale. If the variability induced by tides is not taken into account, there is a potential risk of overestimating the polynya's CO2 uptake by 67 % or underestimating it by 73 %, compared to the average flux determined over several days. Depending on the timing of limited sampling, the polynya may appear to be a source or a sink of CO2. Given the disproportionate influence of polynyas on heat and carbon exchange in polar oceans, we recommend future studies around the Antarctic and Arctic coastlines to consider the timing of tidal currents in their sampling strategies and analyses. This will help constrain variability in oceanographic measurements and avoid potential biases in our understanding of these highly complex systems.

  • Research software . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Troupin, Charles; Eliezer, Menashe; Username12; Pasquier, Benoit; Leinweber, Katrin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | SeaDataCloud (730960)

    DIVAnd v2.7.9 Diff since v2.7.8 Closed issues: Bulls eye in region without data (#90) How to leverage other data while gridding? (Enhancement) (#96) Failed test (#104) Merged pull requests: CompatHelper: bump compat for Interpolations to 0.14, (keep existing compat) (#103) (@github-actions[bot])

  • Research software . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Troupin, Charles; Eliezer, Menashe; username12; Pasquier, Benoit; Leinweber, Katrin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SeaDataCloud (730960), EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | SeaDataCloud (730960), EC | Blue Cloud (862409)

    DIVAnd v2.7.9 Diff since v2.7.8 Closed issues: Bulls eye in region without data (#90) How to leverage other data while gridding? (Enhancement) (#96) Failed test (#104) Merged pull requests: CompatHelper: bump compat for Interpolations to 0.14, (keep existing compat) (#103) (@github-actions[bot])

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dearnley, Jamie;
    Country: Canada

    Knowledge gaps pertaining to the remediation of freshwater lakes impacted by oil spills have persisted despite recent record highs for oil production and transportation across vulnerable regions in North America. The multiyear Freshwater Oil Spill Remediation Study (FOReSt), conducted at the IISD-Experimental Lakes Area in Canada, is focusing on the efficacy of minimally invasive methods for remediating oil spills in freshwater boreal lakes. In this thesis, the impacts and remediation of diluted bitumen (dilbit) and conventional heavy crude oil (CHV) spills were investigated (year 1), as were a variety of different remediation methods for spills of dilbit on different shoreline substrates (year 2). Two common small-bodied fish, fathead minnows (Promephales promelas) and finescale dace (Chrosomus neogaeus), were used to assess exposure to petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in model enclosed shoreline ecosystems impacted by spills and remediated using minimally invasive techniques. Short-term exposure to PACs, the most toxicologically relevant compounds in oil, was assessed in fish using biliary metabolite concentrations. In year one, finescale dace and fathead minnows residing in oil treated enclosures each had biliary pyrene metabolite concentrations that were positively correlated with pyrene concentrations in the water of the enclosures. Three months after the initial spills, fish in the enclosure receiving dilbit were significantly more exposed to PACs than fish in reference enclosures that did not receive oil. In year two, both finescale dace and fathead minnows residing in oil-treated exposures, regardless of shoreline substrate, showed increased exposure to PACs compared to fish in reference enclosures and the pristine lake environment two and a half months after the spills. No significant differences in exposure were observed among the remediation treatments. Biliary PAC metabolite concentrations were positively predicted by parent PAC concentrations in periphyton. PACs in periphyton two and a half months after oil introduction were positively correlated with PACs in the enclosures one week after spills, suggesting fish also had increased exposure to periphyton-bound alkyl-PACs. This thesis validates the use of small-bodied fish in assessing PAC exposure following freshwater oil spills and demonstrates the difficulties in estimating exposure using environmental concentrations in natural systems.