Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
5 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • European Marine Science
  • Research data
  • Research software
  • Other research products
  • Open Access
  • Brunel University Research Archive
  • European Marine Science

Date (most recent)
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barnett, J; McConnon, A; Kennedy, J; Raats, M; Shepherd, R; Verbeke, W; Fletcher, J; Kuttschreuter, M; Lima, L; Wills, J; +1 more
    Publisher: Biomed Central
    Country: United Kingdom

    The FoodRisC project is funded under the Seventh Framework Programme (CORDIS FP7) of the European Commission; Grant agreement no.: 245124. Copyright @ 2011 Barnett et al. BACKGROUND: European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe.METHODS/DESIGN: This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe.DISCUSSION: The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. This article is available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jobling, S; Burn, RW; Thorpe, K; Williams, R; Tyler, C;
    Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
    Country: United Kingdom

    Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives Background: The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some wastewater treatment works has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. This concern stems from the view that the effects observed have a parallel in humans, and that both phenomena are caused by exposure to mixtures of contaminants that interfere with reproductive development. The evidence for a “wildlife–human connection” is, however, weak: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, seen in human males, is most easily reproduced in rodent models by exposure to mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals. In contrast, the accepted explanation for feminization of wild male fish is that it results mainly from exposure to steroidal estrogens originating primarily from human excretion. Objectives: We sought to further explore the hypothesis that endocrine disruption in fish is multi-causal, resulting from exposure to mixtures of chemicals with both estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. Methods: We used hierarchical generalized linear and generalized additive statistical modeling to explore the associations between modeled concentrations and activities of estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals in 30 U.K. rivers and feminized responses seen in wild fish living in these rivers. Results: In addition to the estrogenic substances, antiandrogenic activity was prevalent in almost all treated sewage effluents tested. Further, the results of the modeling demonstrated that feminizing effects in wild fish could be best modeled as a function of their predicted exposure to both antiandrogens and estrogens or to antiandrogens alone. Conclusion: The results provide a strong argument for a multicausal etiology of widespread feminization of wild fish in U.K. rivers involving contributions from both steroidal estrogens and xenoestrogens and from other (as yet unknown) contaminants with antiandrogenic properties. These results may add further credence to the hypothesis that endocrine-disrupting effects seen in wild fish and in humans are caused by similar combinations of endocrine-disrupting chemical cocktails. NERC (NER/ NE/E016634/1), Beyond The Basics Ltd. and the UK Environment Agency

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liney, KE; Hagger, JA; Tyler, CR; Depledge, MH; Galloway, TS; Jobling, S;
    Publisher: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Concern has been raised in recent years that exposure to wastewater treatment effluents containing estrogenic chemicals can disrupt the endocrine functioning of riverine fish and cause permanent alterations in the structure and function of the reproductive system. Reproductive disorders may not necessarily arise as a result of estrogenic effects alone, and there is a need for a better understanding of the relative importance of endocrine disruption in relation to other forms of toxicity. Here, the integrated health effects of long-term effluent exposure are reported (reproductive, endocrine, immune, genotoxic, nephrotoxic). Early life-stage roach, Rutilus rutilus, were exposed for 300 days to treated wastewater effluent at concentrations of 0, 15.2, 34.8, and 78.7% (with dechlorinated tap water as diluent). Concentrations of treated effluents that induced feminization of male roach, measured as vitellogenin induction and histological alteration to gonads, also caused statistically significant alterations in kidney development (tubule diameter), modulated immune function (differential cell count, total number of thrombocytes), and caused genotoxic damage (micronucleus induction and single-strand breaks in gill and blood cells). Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects occurred at concentrations of wastewater effluent lower than those required to induce recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive endocrine system. These findings emphasize the need for multiple biological end points in tests that assess the potential health effects of wastewater effluents. They also suggest that for some effluents, genotoxic and immune end points may be more sensitive than estrogenic (endocrine-mediated) end points as indicators of exposure in fish.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liney, KE; Jobling, S; Shears, JA; Simpson, P; Tyler, CR;
    Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Science
    Country: United Kingdom

    Surveys of U.K. rivers have shown a high incidence of sexual disruption in populations of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) living downstream from wastewater treatment works (WwTW), and the degree of intersex (gonads containing both male and female structural characteristics) has been correlated with the concentration of effluent in those rivers. In this study, we investigated feminized responses to two estrogenic WwTWs in roach exposed for periods during life stages of germ cell division (early life and the postspawning period). Roach were exposed as embryos from fertilization up to 300 days posthatch (dph; to include the period of gonadal sex differentiation) or as postspawning adult males, and including fish that had received previous estrogen exposure, for either 60 or 120 days when the annual event of germ cell proliferation occurs. Both effluents induced vitellogenin synthesis in both life stages studied, and the magnitude of the vitellogenic responses paralleled the effluent content of steroid estrogens. Feminization of the reproductive ducts occurred in male fish in a concentration-dependent manner when the exposure occurred during early life, but we found no effects on the reproductive ducts in adult males. Depuration studies (maintenance of fish in clean water after exposure to WwTW effluent) confirmed that the feminization of the reproductive duct was permanent. We found no evidence of ovotestis development in fish that had no previous estrogen exposure for any of the treatments. In wild adult roach that had previously received exposure to estrogen and were intersex, the degree of intersex increased during the study period, but this was not related to the immediate effluent exposure, suggesting a previously determined programming of ovotestis formation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Newbold, R F; Cabury, E; Newton, C; Roberts, T; Slijepcevic, P;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    BACKGROUND: Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends that undergo dynamic changes after each cell cycle. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere dynamics is critically dependent on the ability to accurately measure telomere length in a cell population of interest. Techniques such as Southern blot, which measures average telomere length, and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), which can estimate telomere length in individual chromosomes, are limited in their capacity to determine the distribution of cells with differing telomere lengths in a given cell population. METHODS: We employed flow-FISH to determine whether mouse and human cell lines exhibit subpopulations of cells with differing telomere lengths. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that at least one of four analyzed mouse cell lines had two subpopulations of cells with differing telomere lengths. Differences in telomere length between subpopulations of cells were significant, and we term this phenomenon TELEFLUCS (TElomere LEngth FLUctuations in Cell Subpopulations). We also observed TELEFLUCS in 1 of 19 analyzed human nonalternative lengthening of telomere cell lines and in 1 of 2 analyzed human alternative lengthening of telomere cell lines. The existence of cell subpopulations with differing telomere lengths was confirmed by Q-FISH. CONCLUSION: Our results underscore the importance of flow-FISH in telomere length analysis. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
5 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barnett, J; McConnon, A; Kennedy, J; Raats, M; Shepherd, R; Verbeke, W; Fletcher, J; Kuttschreuter, M; Lima, L; Wills, J; +1 more
    Publisher: Biomed Central
    Country: United Kingdom

    The FoodRisC project is funded under the Seventh Framework Programme (CORDIS FP7) of the European Commission; Grant agreement no.: 245124. Copyright @ 2011 Barnett et al. BACKGROUND: European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe.METHODS/DESIGN: This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe.DISCUSSION: The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. This article is available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jobling, S; Burn, RW; Thorpe, K; Williams, R; Tyler, C;
    Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
    Country: United Kingdom

    Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives Background: The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some wastewater treatment works has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. This concern stems from the view that the effects observed have a parallel in humans, and that both phenomena are caused by exposure to mixtures of contaminants that interfere with reproductive development. The evidence for a “wildlife–human connection” is, however, weak: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, seen in human males, is most easily reproduced in rodent models by exposure to mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals. In contrast, the accepted explanation for feminization of wild male fish is that it results mainly from exposure to steroidal estrogens originating primarily from human excretion. Objectives: We sought to further explore the hypothesis that endocrine disruption in fish is multi-causal, resulting from exposure to mixtures of chemicals with both estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. Methods: We used hierarchical generalized linear and generalized additive statistical modeling to explore the associations between modeled concentrations and activities of estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals in 30 U.K. rivers and feminized responses seen in wild fish living in these rivers. Results: In addition to the estrogenic substances, antiandrogenic activity was prevalent in almost all treated sewage effluents tested. Further, the results of the modeling demonstrated that feminizing effects in wild fish could be best modeled as a function of their predicted exposure to both antiandrogens and estrogens or to antiandrogens alone. Conclusion: The results provide a strong argument for a multicausal etiology of widespread feminization of wild fish in U.K. rivers involving contributions from both steroidal estrogens and xenoestrogens and from other (as yet unknown) contaminants with antiandrogenic properties. These results may add further credence to the hypothesis that endocrine-disrupting effects seen in wild fish and in humans are caused by similar combinations of endocrine-disrupting chemical cocktails. NERC (NER/ NE/E016634/1), Beyond The Basics Ltd. and the UK Environment Agency

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liney, KE; Hagger, JA; Tyler, CR; Depledge, MH; Galloway, TS; Jobling, S;
    Publisher: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Concern has been raised in recent years that exposure to wastewater treatment effluents containing estrogenic chemicals can disrupt the endocrine functioning of riverine fish and cause permanent alterations in the structure and function of the reproductive system. Reproductive disorders may not necessarily arise as a result of estrogenic effects alone, and there is a need for a better understanding of the relative importance of endocrine disruption in relation to other forms of toxicity. Here, the integrated health effects of long-term effluent exposure are reported (reproductive, endocrine, immune, genotoxic, nephrotoxic). Early life-stage roach, Rutilus rutilus, were exposed for 300 days to treated wastewater effluent at concentrations of 0, 15.2, 34.8, and 78.7% (with dechlorinated tap water as diluent). Concentrations of treated effluents that induced feminization of male roach, measured as vitellogenin induction and histological alteration to gonads, also caused statistically significant alterations in kidney development (tubule diameter), modulated immune function (differential cell count, total number of thrombocytes), and caused genotoxic damage (micronucleus induction and single-strand breaks in gill and blood cells). Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects occurred at concentrations of wastewater effluent lower than those required to induce recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive endocrine system. These findings emphasize the need for multiple biological end points in tests that assess the potential health effects of wastewater effluents. They also suggest that for some effluents, genotoxic and immune end points may be more sensitive than estrogenic (endocrine-mediated) end points as indicators of exposure in fish.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liney, KE; Jobling, S; Shears, JA; Simpson, P; Tyler, CR;
    Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Science
    Country: United Kingdom

    Surveys of U.K. rivers have shown a high incidence of sexual disruption in populations of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) living downstream from wastewater treatment works (WwTW), and the degree of intersex (gonads containing both male and female structural characteristics) has been correlated with the concentration of effluent in those rivers. In this study, we investigated feminized responses to two estrogenic WwTWs in roach exposed for periods during life stages of germ cell division (early life and the postspawning period). Roach were exposed as embryos from fertilization up to 300 days posthatch (dph; to include the period of gonadal sex differentiation) or as postspawning adult males, and including fish that had received previous estrogen exposure, for either 60 or 120 days when the annual event of germ cell proliferation occurs. Both effluents induced vitellogenin synthesis in both life stages studied, and the magnitude of the vitellogenic responses paralleled the effluent content of steroid estrogens. Feminization of the reproductive ducts occurred in male fish in a concentration-dependent manner when the exposure occurred during early life, but we found no effects on the reproductive ducts in adult males. Depuration studies (maintenance of fish in clean water after exposure to WwTW effluent) confirmed that the feminization of the reproductive duct was permanent. We found no evidence of ovotestis development in fish that had no previous estrogen exposure for any of the treatments. In wild adult roach that had previously received exposure to estrogen and were intersex, the degree of intersex increased during the study period, but this was not related to the immediate effluent exposure, suggesting a previously determined programming of ovotestis formation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Newbold, R F; Cabury, E; Newton, C; Roberts, T; Slijepcevic, P;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    BACKGROUND: Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends that undergo dynamic changes after each cell cycle. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere dynamics is critically dependent on the ability to accurately measure telomere length in a cell population of interest. Techniques such as Southern blot, which measures average telomere length, and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), which can estimate telomere length in individual chromosomes, are limited in their capacity to determine the distribution of cells with differing telomere lengths in a given cell population. METHODS: We employed flow-FISH to determine whether mouse and human cell lines exhibit subpopulations of cells with differing telomere lengths. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that at least one of four analyzed mouse cell lines had two subpopulations of cells with differing telomere lengths. Differences in telomere length between subpopulations of cells were significant, and we term this phenomenon TELEFLUCS (TElomere LEngth FLUctuations in Cell Subpopulations). We also observed TELEFLUCS in 1 of 19 analyzed human nonalternative lengthening of telomere cell lines and in 1 of 2 analyzed human alternative lengthening of telomere cell lines. The existence of cell subpopulations with differing telomere lengths was confirmed by Q-FISH. CONCLUSION: Our results underscore the importance of flow-FISH in telomere length analysis. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.