search
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
307 Research products, page 1 of 31

  • European Marine Science
  • Collection
  • EU
  • GB
  • English
  • European Marine Science

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tessin, Allyson; März, Christian; Kędra, Monika; Matthiessen, Jens; Morata, Nathalie; Nairn, Michael; O'Regan, Matthew; Peeken, Ilka;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PaNDA (709175)

    The Arctic Ocean region is currently undergoing dramatic changes, which will likely alter the nutrient cycles that underpin Arctic marine ecosystems. Phosphate is a key limiting nutrient for marine life but gaps in our understanding of the Arctic phosphorus (P) cycle persist. In this study, we investigate the benthic burial and recycling of phosphorus using sediments and pore waters from the Eurasian Arctic margin, including the Barents Sea slope and the Yermak Plateau. Our results highlight that P is generally lost from sediments with depth during organic matter respiration. On the Yermak Plateau, remobilization of P results in a diffusive flux of P to the seafloor of between 96 and 261 μmol m−2 yr−1. On the Barents Sea slope, diffusive fluxes of P are much larger (1736–2449 μmol m−2 yr−1), but these fluxes are into near-surface sediments rather than to the bottom waters. The difference in cycling on the Barents Sea slope is controlled by higher fluxes of fresh organic matter and active iron cycling. As changes in primary productivity, ocean circulation and glacial melt continue, benthic P cycling is likely to be altered with implications for P imported into the Arctic Ocean Basin.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rampen, Sebastiaan W; Willmott, Verónica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Uliana, Eleonora; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Schefuß, Enno; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PACEMAKER (226600)

    Long chain alkyl diols form a group of lipids occurring widely in marine environments. Recent studies have suggested several palaeoclimatological applications for proxies based on their distributions, but also revealed uncertainties about their applicability. Here we evaluate the use of long chain 1,14-alkyl diol indices for reconstruction of temperature and upwelling conditions by comparing index values, obtained from a comprehensive set of marine surface sediments, with environmental factors like sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and nutrient concentrations. Previous cultivation efforts indicated a strong effect of temperature on the degree of saturation and the chain length distribution of long chain 1,14-alkyl diols in Proboscia spp., quantified in the diol saturation index (DSI) and diol chain length index (DCI), respectively. However, values of these indices in surface sediments show no relationship with annual mean SST of the overlying water. It remains unknown what determines the DSI, although our data suggests that it may be affected by diagenesis, while the relationship between temperature and DCI may be different for different Proboscia species. In addition, contributions of algae other than Proboscia diatoms may affect both indices, although our data provide no direct evidence for additional long chain 1,14-alkyl diol sources. Two other indices using the abundance of 1,14-diols vs. 1,13-diols and C30 1,15-diols have previously been applied as indicators for upwelling intensity at different locations. The geographical distribution of their values supports the use of 1,14 diols vs. 1,13 diols [C28 + C30 1,14-diols]/[(C28 + C30 1,13-diols) + (C28 + C30 1,14-diols)] as a general indicator for high nutrient or upwelling conditions.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Böttner, Christoph; Berndt, Christian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    High-resolution 2D seismic reflection data during research cruise MSM63 in April/May 2017 onboard RV Maria S. Merian. The seismic profiles were acquired with a two-105/105-in3-GI-Gun-array shot at 210 bar every 5 seconds and a 150 m-long streamer with 96 channels and 1.5625 m channel spacing. The resulting shot point distance is approximately 8.75-12.5 m at 3.5-5 kn ship speed. The frequency range of the two-GI-Gun-array is 15-500 Hz. The processing included geometry and delay corrections, static corrections, binning to 1.5625 m and bandpass filtering with corner frequencies of 25, 45, 420, and 500 Hz. Furthermore, a normal-move-out-correction (with a constant velocity of 1488 m/s calculated from CTD measurements) was applied and the data were stacked and then migrated using a 2D Stolt algorithm (1500 m/s constant velocity model). Sub-bottom profiler data acquired during cruise MSM63 using Parasound P70 with 4 kHz as the secondary low frequency to obtain seismic images of the upper 100 m below the seafloor with very high vertical resolution (< 15 cm). We applied a frequency filter (low cut 2 kHz, high cut 6 kHz, 2 iterations) and calculated the envelope within the seismic interpretation software IHS Kingdom. Bathymetric data were acquired with the EM712 system mounted to the hull of RV Maria S. Merian. The survey was designed to provide high-resolution bathymetry with 5 x 5 m resolution. We processed the data using MB Systems software (Caress & Chayes, 2017) and included statistical evaluation of soundings that increased the signal-to-noise ratio. The sound velocity profile for multibeam processing was measured at the beginning and at the end of the cruise.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antonova, Sofia; Sudhaus, Henriette; Strozzi, Tazio; Zwieback, Simon; Kääb, Andreas; Heim, Birgit; Langer, Moritz; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICEMASS (320816), NSF | Automated, High Resolutio... (1542736), NSF | The Polar Geospatial Info... (1043681)

    In permafrost areas, seasonal freeze-thaw cycles result in upward and downward movements of the ground. For some permafrost areas, long-term downward movements were reported during the last decade. We measured seasonal and multi-year ground movements in a yedoma region of the Lena River Delta, Siberia, in 2013–2017, using reference rods installed deep in the permafrost. The seasonal subsidence was 1.7 ± 1.5 cm in the cold summer of 2013 and 4.8 ± 2 cm in the warm summer of 2014. Furthermore, we measured a pronounced multi-year net subsidence of 9.3 ± 5.7 cm from spring 2013 to the end of summer 2017. Importantly, we observed a high spatial variability of subsidence of up to 6 cm across a sub-meter horizontal scale. In summer 2013, we accompanied our field measurements with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) on repeat-pass TerraSAR-X (TSX) data from the summer of 2013 to detect summer thaw subsidence over the same study area. Interferometry was strongly affected by a fast phase coherence loss, atmospheric artifacts, and possibly the choice of reference point. A cumulative ground movement map, built from a continuous interferogram stack, did not reveal a subsidence on the upland but showed a distinct subsidence of up to 2 cm in most of the thermokarst basins. There, the spatial pattern of DInSAR-measured subsidence corresponded well with relative surface wetness identified with the near infra-red band of a high-resolution optical image. Our study suggests that (i) although X-band SAR has serious limitations for ground movement monitoring in permafrost landscapes, it can provide valuable information for specific environments like thermokarst basins, and (ii) due to the high sub-pixel spatial variability of ground movements, a validation scheme needs to be developed and implemented for future DInSAR studies in permafrost environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | MIONIÑO (796220)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Deckker, Patrick; Moros, Matthias; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R; Barrows, Timothy T; Perner, Kerstin;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The data relate to a paper submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews. All the data support a study of the last 94 ka recorded in core MD03-2611 and an adjacent multicore MD03-MUC 3 taken on the fringe of one of the Murray Canyons offshore Kangaroo Island. Additional data pertain to core SS0206-GC15 taken offshore Victoria south of Warrnambool, but its record only spans the last 25ka. The records are at high resolution and cover a multitude of parameters. Radiocarbon dates for these cores are presented in the supplementary section of this paper.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Eisen, Olaf; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Lewis, Cameron; Nielsen, Lisbeth T; Paden, John D; Winter, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | WATERUNDERTHEICE (246815)

    Radar-detected internal layering contains information on past accumulation rates and patterns. In this study, we assume that the radar layers are isochrones, and use the layer stratigraphy in combination with ice-core measurements and numerical methods to retrieve accumulation information for the northern part of central Greenland. Measurements of the dielectric properties of an ice core from the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, allow for correlation of the radar layers with volcanic horizons to obtain an accurate age of the layers. We obtain 100 a averaged accumulation patterns for the period 1311-2011 for a 300 by 350 km area encompassing the two ice-core sites: NEEM and NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project). Our results show a clear trend of high accumulation rates west of the ice divide and low accumulation rates east of the ice divide. At the NEEM site, this accumulation pattern persists throughout our study period with only minor temporal variations in the accumulation rate. In contrast, the accumulation rate shows more pronounced temporal variations (based on our centennial averages) from 170 km south of the NEEM site to the NGRIP site. We attribute this variation to shifts in the location of the high?low accumulation boundary away from the ice divide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pritchard, Hamish D; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Fricker, Helen; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Padman, Laurie;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2SEA (226375)

    Accurate prediction of global sea-level rise requires that we understand the cause of recent, widespread and intensifying glacier acceleration along Antarctic ice-sheet coastal margins. Floating ice shelves buttress the flow of grounded tributary glaciers and their thickness and extent are particularly susceptible to changes in both climate and ocean forcing. Recent ice-shelf collapse led to retreat and acceleration of several glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. However, the extent and magnitude of ice-shelf thickness change, its causes and its link to glacier flow rate are so poorly understood that its influence on the future of the ice sheets cannot yet be predicted. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and modelling of the surface firn layer to reveal for the first time the circum-Antarctic pattern of ice-shelf thinning through increased basal melt. We deduce that this increased melt is the primary driver of Antarctic ice-sheet loss, through a reduction in buttressing of the adjacent ice sheet that has led to accelerated glacier flow. The highest thinning rates (~7 m/a) occur where warm water at depth can access thick ice shelves via submarine troughs crossing the continental shelf. Wind forcing could explain the dominant patterns of both basal melting and the surface melting and collapse of Antarctic ice shelves, through ocean upwelling in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and atmospheric warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. This implies that climate forcing through changing winds influences Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance, and hence global sea-level, on annual to decadal timescales.

search
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
307 Research products, page 1 of 31
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huse, Geir;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    Acoustic estimates of herring and blue whiting abundance were obtained during the surveys using the Simrad ER60 scientific echosounder. The allocation of NASC-values to herring, blue whiting and other acoustic targets were based on the composition of the trawl catches and the appearance of echo recordings. To estimate the abundance, the allocated NASC -values were averaged for ICES-squares (0.5° latitude by 1° longitude). For each statistical square, the unit area density of fish (rA) in number per square nautical mile (N*nm-2) was calculated using standard equations (Foote et al., 1987; Toresen et al., 1998). To estimate the total abundance of fish, the unit area abundance for each statistical square was multiplied by the number of square nautical miles in each statistical square and then summed for all the statistical squares within defined subareas and over the total area. Biomass estimation was calculated by multiplying abundance in numbers by the average weight of the fish in each statistical square then summing all squares within defined subareas and over the total area. The Norwegian BEAM soft-ware (Totland and Godø 2001) was used to make estimates of total biomass.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tessin, Allyson; März, Christian; Kędra, Monika; Matthiessen, Jens; Morata, Nathalie; Nairn, Michael; O'Regan, Matthew; Peeken, Ilka;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PaNDA (709175)

    The Arctic Ocean region is currently undergoing dramatic changes, which will likely alter the nutrient cycles that underpin Arctic marine ecosystems. Phosphate is a key limiting nutrient for marine life but gaps in our understanding of the Arctic phosphorus (P) cycle persist. In this study, we investigate the benthic burial and recycling of phosphorus using sediments and pore waters from the Eurasian Arctic margin, including the Barents Sea slope and the Yermak Plateau. Our results highlight that P is generally lost from sediments with depth during organic matter respiration. On the Yermak Plateau, remobilization of P results in a diffusive flux of P to the seafloor of between 96 and 261 μmol m−2 yr−1. On the Barents Sea slope, diffusive fluxes of P are much larger (1736–2449 μmol m−2 yr−1), but these fluxes are into near-surface sediments rather than to the bottom waters. The difference in cycling on the Barents Sea slope is controlled by higher fluxes of fresh organic matter and active iron cycling. As changes in primary productivity, ocean circulation and glacial melt continue, benthic P cycling is likely to be altered with implications for P imported into the Arctic Ocean Basin.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rampen, Sebastiaan W; Willmott, Verónica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Uliana, Eleonora; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Schefuß, Enno; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PACEMAKER (226600)

    Long chain alkyl diols form a group of lipids occurring widely in marine environments. Recent studies have suggested several palaeoclimatological applications for proxies based on their distributions, but also revealed uncertainties about their applicability. Here we evaluate the use of long chain 1,14-alkyl diol indices for reconstruction of temperature and upwelling conditions by comparing index values, obtained from a comprehensive set of marine surface sediments, with environmental factors like sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and nutrient concentrations. Previous cultivation efforts indicated a strong effect of temperature on the degree of saturation and the chain length distribution of long chain 1,14-alkyl diols in Proboscia spp., quantified in the diol saturation index (DSI) and diol chain length index (DCI), respectively. However, values of these indices in surface sediments show no relationship with annual mean SST of the overlying water. It remains unknown what determines the DSI, although our data suggests that it may be affected by diagenesis, while the relationship between temperature and DCI may be different for different Proboscia species. In addition, contributions of algae other than Proboscia diatoms may affect both indices, although our data provide no direct evidence for additional long chain 1,14-alkyl diol sources. Two other indices using the abundance of 1,14-diols vs. 1,13-diols and C30 1,15-diols have previously been applied as indicators for upwelling intensity at different locations. The geographical distribution of their values supports the use of 1,14 diols vs. 1,13 diols [C28 + C30 1,14-diols]/[(C28 + C30 1,13-diols) + (C28 + C30 1,14-diols)] as a general indicator for high nutrient or upwelling conditions.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Böttner, Christoph; Berndt, Christian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    High-resolution 2D seismic reflection data during research cruise MSM63 in April/May 2017 onboard RV Maria S. Merian. The seismic profiles were acquired with a two-105/105-in3-GI-Gun-array shot at 210 bar every 5 seconds and a 150 m-long streamer with 96 channels and 1.5625 m channel spacing. The resulting shot point distance is approximately 8.75-12.5 m at 3.5-5 kn ship speed. The frequency range of the two-GI-Gun-array is 15-500 Hz. The processing included geometry and delay corrections, static corrections, binning to 1.5625 m and bandpass filtering with corner frequencies of 25, 45, 420, and 500 Hz. Furthermore, a normal-move-out-correction (with a constant velocity of 1488 m/s calculated from CTD measurements) was applied and the data were stacked and then migrated using a 2D Stolt algorithm (1500 m/s constant velocity model). Sub-bottom profiler data acquired during cruise MSM63 using Parasound P70 with 4 kHz as the secondary low frequency to obtain seismic images of the upper 100 m below the seafloor with very high vertical resolution (< 15 cm). We applied a frequency filter (low cut 2 kHz, high cut 6 kHz, 2 iterations) and calculated the envelope within the seismic interpretation software IHS Kingdom. Bathymetric data were acquired with the EM712 system mounted to the hull of RV Maria S. Merian. The survey was designed to provide high-resolution bathymetry with 5 x 5 m resolution. We processed the data using MB Systems software (Caress & Chayes, 2017) and included statistical evaluation of soundings that increased the signal-to-noise ratio. The sound velocity profile for multibeam processing was measured at the beginning and at the end of the cruise.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antonova, Sofia; Sudhaus, Henriette; Strozzi, Tazio; Zwieback, Simon; Kääb, Andreas; Heim, Birgit; Langer, Moritz; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICEMASS (320816), NSF | Automated, High Resolutio... (1542736), NSF | The Polar Geospatial Info... (1043681)

    In permafrost areas, seasonal freeze-thaw cycles result in upward and downward movements of the ground. For some permafrost areas, long-term downward movements were reported during the last decade. We measured seasonal and multi-year ground movements in a yedoma region of the Lena River Delta, Siberia, in 2013–2017, using reference rods installed deep in the permafrost. The seasonal subsidence was 1.7 ± 1.5 cm in the cold summer of 2013 and 4.8 ± 2 cm in the warm summer of 2014. Furthermore, we measured a pronounced multi-year net subsidence of 9.3 ± 5.7 cm from spring 2013 to the end of summer 2017. Importantly, we observed a high spatial variability of subsidence of up to 6 cm across a sub-meter horizontal scale. In summer 2013, we accompanied our field measurements with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) on repeat-pass TerraSAR-X (TSX) data from the summer of 2013 to detect summer thaw subsidence over the same study area. Interferometry was strongly affected by a fast phase coherence loss, atmospheric artifacts, and possibly the choice of reference point. A cumulative ground movement map, built from a continuous interferogram stack, did not reveal a subsidence on the upland but showed a distinct subsidence of up to 2 cm in most of the thermokarst basins. There, the spatial pattern of DInSAR-measured subsidence corresponded well with relative surface wetness identified with the near infra-red band of a high-resolution optical image. Our study suggests that (i) although X-band SAR has serious limitations for ground movement monitoring in permafrost landscapes, it can provide valuable information for specific environments like thermokarst basins, and (ii) due to the high sub-pixel spatial variability of ground movements, a validation scheme needs to be developed and implemented for future DInSAR studies in permafrost environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | MIONIÑO (796220)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Deckker, Patrick; Moros, Matthias; Blanz, Thomas; Schneider, Ralph R; Barrows, Timothy T; Perner, Kerstin;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The data relate to a paper submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews. All the data support a study of the last 94 ka recorded in core MD03-2611 and an adjacent multicore MD03-MUC 3 taken on the fringe of one of the Murray Canyons offshore Kangaroo Island. Additional data pertain to core SS0206-GC15 taken offshore Victoria south of Warrnambool, but its record only spans the last 25ka. The records are at high resolution and cover a multitude of parameters. Radiocarbon dates for these cores are presented in the supplementary section of this paper.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Eisen, Olaf; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Lewis, Cameron; Nielsen, Lisbeth T; Paden, John D; Winter, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | WATERUNDERTHEICE (246815)

    Radar-detected internal layering contains information on past accumulation rates and patterns. In this study, we assume that the radar layers are isochrones, and use the layer stratigraphy in combination with ice-core measurements and numerical methods to retrieve accumulation information for the northern part of central Greenland. Measurements of the dielectric properties of an ice core from the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, allow for correlation of the radar layers with volcanic horizons to obtain an accurate age of the layers. We obtain 100 a averaged accumulation patterns for the period 1311-2011 for a 300 by 350 km area encompassing the two ice-core sites: NEEM and NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project). Our results show a clear trend of high accumulation rates west of the ice divide and low accumulation rates east of the ice divide. At the NEEM site, this accumulation pattern persists throughout our study period with only minor temporal variations in the accumulation rate. In contrast, the accumulation rate shows more pronounced temporal variations (based on our centennial averages) from 170 km south of the NEEM site to the NGRIP site. We attribute this variation to shifts in the location of the high?low accumulation boundary away from the ice divide.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pritchard, Hamish D; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Fricker, Helen; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Padman, Laurie;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2SEA (226375)

    Accurate prediction of global sea-level rise requires that we understand the cause of recent, widespread and intensifying glacier acceleration along Antarctic ice-sheet coastal margins. Floating ice shelves buttress the flow of grounded tributary glaciers and their thickness and extent are particularly susceptible to changes in both climate and ocean forcing. Recent ice-shelf collapse led to retreat and acceleration of several glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. However, the extent and magnitude of ice-shelf thickness change, its causes and its link to glacier flow rate are so poorly understood that its influence on the future of the ice sheets cannot yet be predicted. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and modelling of the surface firn layer to reveal for the first time the circum-Antarctic pattern of ice-shelf thinning through increased basal melt. We deduce that this increased melt is the primary driver of Antarctic ice-sheet loss, through a reduction in buttressing of the adjacent ice sheet that has led to accelerated glacier flow. The highest thinning rates (~7 m/a) occur where warm water at depth can access thick ice shelves via submarine troughs crossing the continental shelf. Wind forcing could explain the dominant patterns of both basal melting and the surface melting and collapse of Antarctic ice shelves, through ocean upwelling in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and atmospheric warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. This implies that climate forcing through changing winds influences Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance, and hence global sea-level, on annual to decadal timescales.