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12 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • European Marine Science
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  • European Commission
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  • European Marine Science

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rybakova, Elena; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Vedenin, Andrey; Boetius, Antje; Gebruk, Andrey V;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Quantitative camera surveys of benthic megafauna were carried out during the expedition ARK-XXVII/3 to the Eastern Central Arctic basins with the research icebreaker Polarstern in summer 2012 (2 August-29 September). Nine transects were performed for the first time in deep-sea areas previously fully covered by ice, four of them in the Nansen Basin (3571-4066m) and five in the Amundsen Basin (4041-4384m). At seven of these stations benthic Agassiz trawls were taken near the camera tracks for species identification.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hoffmann, Katy; Bienhold, Christina; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Laso-Pérez, Rafael; Rapp, Josephine Z; Boetius, Antje; Offre, Pierre;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NWO | Poly-Heal, a novel self-h... (2300157847), EC | ABYSS (294757)

    The present study aimed at a first characterization of the enigmatic JTB255 marine benthic group in deep-sea sediments, by: i) confirming the abundance and ubiquitous distribution of JTB255 in deep-sea sediments globally, ii) refining the phylogenetic positioning of the JTB255 clade within the \u03b3-Proteobacteria, iii) distinguishing potential ecotypes within the JTB255 clade, iv) providing first insights into the metabolic potential of deep-sea representatives of this clade. Therefore, two single cell genomes from Arctic HAUSGARTEN deep-se surface sediments were obtained and CARD-FISH counts of total cells, y-Proteobacteria and the JTB255 marine benthic group performed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Nicolaus, Marcel;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    The ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has been changing dramatically in the last decades and the consequences for the sea-ice associated ecosystem remain difficult to assess. Algal aggregates underneath sea ice have been described sporadically but the frequency and distribution of their occurrence is not well quantified. We used upward looking images obtained by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to derive estimates of ice algal aggregate biomass and to investigate their spatial distribution. During the IceArc expedition (ARK-XXVII/3) of RV Polarstern in late summer 2012, different types of algal aggregates were observed floating underneath various ice types in the Central Arctic basins. Our results show that the floe scale distribution of algal aggregates in late summer is very patchy and determined by the topography of the ice underside, with aggregates collecting in dome shaped structures and at the edges of pressure ridges. The buoyancy of the aggregates was also evident from analysis of the aggregate size distribution. Different approaches used to estimate aggregate biomass yield a wide range of results. This highlights that special care must be taken when upscaling observations and comparing results from surveys conducted using different methods or on different spatial scales. Measurements of solar radiation over and under sea ice as well as surveys of the distribution of algal aggregates under sea ice have been performed on various stations in the Arctic Ocean during the Polarstern cruise ARK-XXVII/3 (IceArc) between 10 August and 29 September 2012. All radiation measurements have been performed with Ramses spectral radiometers (Trios, Rastede, Germany). All data are given in full spectral resolution interpolated to 1.0 nm and integrated over the entire wavelength range (broadband, total: 320 to 950 nm). Two sensors were mounted on a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and one radiometer was installed on the sea ice for surface reference measurements (solar irradiance). On the ROV, one irradiance sensor (cos-collector) for energy budget calculations and one radiance sensor (7° opening angle) to obtain high resolution spatial variability were installed. Along with the radiation measurements, sea-ice draft, roughness as well as under-ice aggregate coverage were recorded. Videos were recorded by a camera mounted in an upward looking position onboard a ROV. Still images were extracted each 5 seconds and aggregates detected in the images. Final processed data are provided gridded on a 3x3m grid in local floe coordinates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Braeckman, Ulrike; Janssen, Felix; Lavik, Gaute; Elvert, Marcus; Marchant, Hannah K; Buckner, Caroline; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    This is a dataset from an in situ experiment at station S2 from the LTER monitoring site HAUSGARTEN, performed in June-July 2013 during Maria S Merian expedition MSM29. The in situ responses of Arctic deep-sea benthos to input of phytodetritus of a diatom (Thalassiosira sp.) as opposed to a coccolithophorid (Emiliania huxleyi) were investigated in incubation chambers of benthic landers. Using 13C and 15N labelled phytodetritus harvested from cultures of these species, we traced the fate of the respective phytodetritus into different parts of the food web (respiration, assimilation by bacteria and infauna >250 µm), in a short (4d) and long (14d) term experiment. The benthic landers were lowered to the sea floor, where they enclosed ~ 20cm of sediment and ~10 cm of overlying water. During respectively 4d and 14d, the temperature and concentrations of O2, DIC, 13C-DIC, NHx, NOx, 15N-NH4, 15N-NOx were measured. Upon recovery of the landers, the sediment was retrieved and subsampled in vertical horizons to measure pigment, TOC and TN, 13C-POC and 15N-PN concentrations, pore water concentrations of DIC, 13C-DIC, NHx, NOx, 15N-NH4 and 15N-NOx and the assimilation of 13C in bacterial fatty acids (iC15:0 and aiC15:0) and in fauna > 250 µm

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boetius, Antje; Albrecht, Sebastian; Bakker, Karel; Bienhold, Christina; Felden, Janine; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hendricks, Stefan; Katlein, Christian; Lalande, Catherine; Krumpen, Thomas; +8 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is not only restricted by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. RV Polarstern visited the ice-covered Eastern Central basins between 82 to 89°N and 30 to 130°E in summer 2012 when Arctic sea ice declined to a record minimum. During this cruise, we observed a widespread deposition of ice algal biomass of on average 9 g C per m**2 to the deep-sea floor of the Central Arctic basins. Data from this cruise will contribute to assessing the impact of current climate change on Arctic productivity, biodiversity, and ecological function. Find further datasets for- Continuous meteorological surface measurements (Gert König-Langlo): doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.802840- Physical oceanography from CTD casts (Rabe et al.): doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.802904- Sea ice conditions (Hendricks et al.): doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.803221

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rossel, Pamela E; Bienhold, Christina; Boetius, Antje; Dittmar, Thorsten;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Marine organic matter (OM) sinks from surface waters to the seafloor via the biological pump. Benthic communities, which use this sedimented OM as energy and carbon source, produce dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the process of remineralization, enriching the sediment porewater with fresh DOM compounds. We hypothesized that in the oligotrophic deep Arctic basin the molecular signal of freshly deposited primary produced OM is restricted to the surface sediment pore waters which should differ from bottom water and deeper sediment pore water in DOM composition. This study focused on: 1) the molecular composition of the DOM in sediment pore waters of the deep Eurasian Arctic basins, 2) whether the signal of marine vs. terrigenous DOM is represented by different compounds preserved in the sediment pore waters and 3) whether there is any relation between Arctic Ocean ice cover and DOM composition. Molecular data, obtained via 15 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, were correlated with environmental parameters by partial least square analysis. The fresher marine detrital OM signal from surface waters was limited to pore waters from < 5 cm sediment depth. The productive ice margin stations showed higher abundances of peptides, unsaturated aliphatics and saturated fatty acids formulae, indicative of fresh OM/pigments deposition, compared to northernmost stations which had stronger aromatic signals. This study contributes to the understanding of the coupling between the Arctic Ocean productivity and its depositional regime, and how it will be altered in response to sea ice retreat and increasing river runoff. This is a contribution to the European Research Council Advanced Investigator Grant 294757 to Antje Boetius.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Rabe, Benjamin; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Boetius, Antje;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    The ice-covered Central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. It has been speculated that the recent reduction in ice cover could lead to a substantial increase in primary production, but still little is known as to the fate of the ice-associated primary production, and of nutrient supply with increasing warming. This study presents results from the Central Arctic Ocean collected during summer 2012, when sea-ice reached a minimum extent since the onset of satellite observations. Net primary productivity (NPP) was measured in water column, sea ice and melt ponds by 14CO2 uptake at different irradiances. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PI) curves were established in laboratory experiments and used to upscale measured NPP to the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78°N) using the irradiance-based Central Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity model (CAOPP). In addition, new annual production was calculated from the seasonal nutrient drawdown in the mixed layer since last winter. Results show that ice algae can contribute up to 60% to primary production in the Central Arctic at the end of the season. The ice-covered water column had lower NPP rates than open water probably due to light limitation. According to the nutrient ratios in the euphotic zone, nitrate limitation was detected in the Siberian Seas (Laptev Sea area), while silicate was the main limiting nutrient at the ice margin influenced by Atlantic waters. Although sea-ice cover was substantially reduced in 2012, total annual new production in the Eurasian Basin was 17 ± 7 Tg C/yr, which is similar to previous estimates. However, when including the contribution by sub-ice algal filaments, the annual production for the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78°N) is 16 Tg C/yr higher than estimated before. Our data suggest that sub-ice algae might be responsible for potential local increases in NPP due to higher light availability under the ice, and their ability to benefit from a wider area of nutrients as they drift with the ice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    To understand how ocean acidification (OA) influences sediment microbial communities, naturally CO2-rich sites are increasingly being used as OA analogues. However, the characterization of these naturally CO2-rich sites is often limited to OA-related variables, neglecting additional environmental variables that may confound OA effects. Here, we used an extensive array of sediment and bottom water parameters to evaluate pH effects on sediment microbial communities at hydrothermal CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The geochemical composition of the sediment pore water showed variations in the hydrothermal signature at seep sites with comparable pH, allowing the identification of sites that may better represent future OA scenarios. At these sites, we detected a 60% shift in the microbial community composition compared with reference sites, mostly related to increases in Chloroflexi sequences. pH was among the factors significantly, yet not mainly, explaining changes in microbial community composition. pH variation may therefore often not be the primary cause of microbial changes when sampling is done along complex environmental gradients. Thus, we recommend an ecosystem approach when assessing OA effects on sediment microbial communities under natural conditions. This will enable a more reliable quantification of OA effects via a reduction of potential confounding effects. This pangaea entry contains the data on the microbial community structure and bottom water parameters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kiesel, Joshua; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Link, Heike;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    During the RV Polarstern expedition PS94, we gathered sediment samples in the Barents Sea and the central Arctic Ocean by deploying both a multiple corer (MUC) and a giant boxcorer (GKG). After retrieval of the MUC or GKG, replicate sediment cores with a visibly intact sediment surface were chosen for further laboratory analysis. The selected cores were brought to the laboratory on board RV Polarstern for further analysis. While data on chlorophyll pigments, total organic carbon, microbial cell numbers and diffusive oxygen uptake rates were taken from the same cores, total oxygen uptake rates were measured in three additional cores.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vedenin, Andrey; Gusky, Manuela; Gebruk, Andrey V; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Rybakova, Elena; Boetius, Antje;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ABYSS (294757)

    Permanent sea-ice cover and low primary productivity in the mostly ice-covered Central Arctic ocean basins result in significantly lower biomass and density of macrobenthos in the abyssal plains compared to the continental slopes. However, little is known on bathymetric and regional effects on the macrobenthos diversity. This study synthesizes new and available macrobenthos data to provide a baseline for future studies of the effects of Arctic change on macrofauna community composition in the Arctic basins. Samples collected during three expeditions (in 1993, 2012 and 2015) at 37 stations on the slope of the Barents and Laptev Seas and in the abyssal of the Nansen and Amundsen Basins in the depth range from 38 m to 4381 m were used for a quantitative analysis of species composition, abundance and biomass. Benthic communities clustered in five depth ranges across the slope and basin. A parabolic pattern of species diversity change with depth was found, with the diversity maximum for macrofauna at the shelf edge at depths of 100–300 m. This deviates from the typical species richness peak at mid-slope depths of 1500–3000 m in temperate oceans. Due to the limited availability of standardized benthos data, it remains difficult to assess if and how the significant sea-ice loss observed in the past decade has affected benthic community composition. The polychaete Ymerana pteropoda and the bryozoan Nolella sp. were found for the first time in the deep Nansen and Amundsen Basins.