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  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
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  • ABYSS
  • English
  • European Marine Science

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    Authors: Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth;

    Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps, and upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis were used to characterize more than 200 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. The bacterial biofilm consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Cytophaga, whereas putative settlement-inducing taxa only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous with approximately 25% shared operational taxonomic units between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH only had a weak effect on community composition (R² ~ 1%) and did not affect community richness and evenness. In contrast, there were strong differences between upper and lower surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms than changes in seawater pH.

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    Authors: Braeckman, Ulrike; Janssen, Felix; Lavik, Gaute; Elvert, Marcus; +4 Authors

    This is a dataset from an in situ experiment at station S2 from the LTER monitoring site HAUSGARTEN, performed in June-July 2013 during Maria S Merian expedition MSM29. The in situ responses of Arctic deep-sea benthos to input of phytodetritus of a diatom (Thalassiosira sp.) as opposed to a coccolithophorid (Emiliania huxleyi) were investigated in incubation chambers of benthic landers. Using 13C and 15N labelled phytodetritus harvested from cultures of these species, we traced the fate of the respective phytodetritus into different parts of the food web (respiration, assimilation by bacteria and infauna >250 µm), in a short (4d) and long (14d) term experiment. The benthic landers were lowered to the sea floor, where they enclosed ~ 20cm of sediment and ~10 cm of overlying water. During respectively 4d and 14d, the temperature and concentrations of O2, DIC, 13C-DIC, NHx, NOx, 15N-NH4, 15N-NOx were measured. Upon recovery of the landers, the sediment was retrieved and subsampled in vertical horizons to measure pigment, TOC and TN, 13C-POC and 15N-PN concentrations, pore water concentrations of DIC, 13C-DIC, NHx, NOx, 15N-NH4 and 15N-NOx and the assimilation of 13C in bacterial fatty acids (iC15:0 and aiC15:0) and in fauna > 250 µm

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    Authors: Rybakova, Elena; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Vedenin, Andrey; Boetius, Antje; +1 Authors

    Quantitative camera surveys of benthic megafauna were carried out during the expedition ARK-XXVII/3 to the Eastern Central Arctic basins with the research icebreaker Polarstern in summer 2012 (2 August-29 September). Nine transects were performed for the first time in deep-sea areas previously fully covered by ice, four of them in the Nansen Basin (3571-4066m) and five in the Amundsen Basin (4041-4384m). At seven of these stations benthic Agassiz trawls were taken near the camera tracks for species identification.

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    Authors: Kiesel, Joshua; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Link, Heike;

    During the RV Polarstern expedition PS94, we gathered sediment samples in the Barents Sea and the central Arctic Ocean by deploying both a multiple corer (MUC) and a giant boxcorer (GKG). After retrieval of the MUC or GKG, replicate sediment cores with a visibly intact sediment surface were chosen for further laboratory analysis. The selected cores were brought to the laboratory on board RV Polarstern for further analysis. While data on chlorophyll pigments, total organic carbon, microbial cell numbers and diffusive oxygen uptake rates were taken from the same cores, total oxygen uptake rates were measured in three additional cores.

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    Authors: Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Rabe, Benjamin; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; +2 Authors

    The ice-covered Central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. It has been speculated that the recent reduction in ice cover could lead to a substantial increase in primary production, but still little is known as to the fate of the ice-associated primary production, and of nutrient supply with increasing warming. This study presents results from the Central Arctic Ocean collected during summer 2012, when sea-ice reached a minimum extent since the onset of satellite observations. Net primary productivity (NPP) was measured in water column, sea ice and melt ponds by 14CO2 uptake at different irradiances. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PI) curves were established in laboratory experiments and used to upscale measured NPP to the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78°N) using the irradiance-based Central Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity model (CAOPP). In addition, new annual production was calculated from the seasonal nutrient drawdown in the mixed layer since last winter. Results show that ice algae can contribute up to 60% to primary production in the Central Arctic at the end of the season. The ice-covered water column had lower NPP rates than open water probably due to light limitation. According to the nutrient ratios in the euphotic zone, nitrate limitation was detected in the Siberian Seas (Laptev Sea area), while silicate was the main limiting nutrient at the ice margin influenced by Atlantic waters. Although sea-ice cover was substantially reduced in 2012, total annual new production in the Eurasian Basin was 17 ± 7 Tg C/yr, which is similar to previous estimates. However, when including the contribution by sub-ice algal filaments, the annual production for the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78°N) is 16 Tg C/yr higher than estimated before. Our data suggest that sub-ice algae might be responsible for potential local increases in NPP due to higher light availability under the ice, and their ability to benefit from a wider area of nutrients as they drift with the ice.

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    Authors: Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban;

    To understand how ocean acidification (OA) influences sediment microbial communities, naturally CO2-rich sites are increasingly being used as OA analogues. However, the characterization of these naturally CO2-rich sites is often limited to OA-related variables, neglecting additional environmental variables that may confound OA effects. Here, we used an extensive array of sediment and bottom water parameters to evaluate pH effects on sediment microbial communities at hydrothermal CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The geochemical composition of the sediment pore water showed variations in the hydrothermal signature at seep sites with comparable pH, allowing the identification of sites that may better represent future OA scenarios. At these sites, we detected a 60% shift in the microbial community composition compared with reference sites, mostly related to increases in Chloroflexi sequences. pH was among the factors significantly, yet not mainly, explaining changes in microbial community composition. pH variation may therefore often not be the primary cause of microbial changes when sampling is done along complex environmental gradients. Thus, we recommend an ecosystem approach when assessing OA effects on sediment microbial communities under natural conditions. This will enable a more reliable quantification of OA effects via a reduction of potential confounding effects. This pangaea entry contains the data on the microbial community structure and bottom water parameters.

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    Authors: Molari, Massimiliano; Guilini, Katja; Lott, Christian; Weber, Miriam; +10 Authors

    Subseabed CO2 storage is considered a future climate change mitigation technology. We investigated the ecological consequences of CO2 leakage for a marine benthic ecosystem. For the first time with a multidisciplinary integrated study, we tested hypotheses derived from a meta-analysis of previous experimental and in situ high-CO2 impact studies. For this, we compared ecological functions of naturally CO2-vented seafloor off the Mediterranean island Panarea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) to those of nonvented sands, with a focus on biogeochemical processes and microbial and faunal community composition. High CO2 fluxes (up to 4 to 7 mol CO2 m−2 hour−1) dissolved all sedimentary carbonate, and comigration of silicate and iron led to local increases of microphytobenthos productivity (+450%) and standing stocks (+300%). Despite the higher food availability, faunal biomass (−80%) and trophic diversity were substantially lower compared to those at the reference site. Bacterial communities were also structurally and functionally affected, most notably in the composition of heterotrophs and microbial sulfate reduction rates (−90%). The observed ecological effects of CO2 leakage on submarine sands were reproduced with medium-term transplant experiments. This study assesses indicators of environmental impact by CO2 leakage and finds that community compositions and important ecological functions are permanently altered under high CO2.

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    Authors: Hoffmann, Katy; Bienhold, Christina; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Laso-Pérez, Rafael; +3 Authors

    The present study aimed at a first characterization of the enigmatic JTB255 marine benthic group in deep-sea sediments, by: i) confirming the abundance and ubiquitous distribution of JTB255 in deep-sea sediments globally, ii) refining the phylogenetic positioning of the JTB255 clade within the \u03b3-Proteobacteria, iii) distinguishing potential ecotypes within the JTB255 clade, iv) providing first insights into the metabolic potential of deep-sea representatives of this clade. Therefore, two single cell genomes from Arctic HAUSGARTEN deep-se surface sediments were obtained and CARD-FISH counts of total cells, y-Proteobacteria and the JTB255 marine benthic group performed.

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    Authors: Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Nicolaus, Marcel;

    The ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has been changing dramatically in the last decades and the consequences for the sea-ice associated ecosystem remain difficult to assess. Algal aggregates underneath sea ice have been described sporadically but the frequency and distribution of their occurrence is not well quantified. We used upward looking images obtained by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to derive estimates of ice algal aggregate biomass and to investigate their spatial distribution. During the IceArc expedition (ARK-XXVII/3) of RV Polarstern in late summer 2012, different types of algal aggregates were observed floating underneath various ice types in the Central Arctic basins. Our results show that the floe scale distribution of algal aggregates in late summer is very patchy and determined by the topography of the ice underside, with aggregates collecting in dome shaped structures and at the edges of pressure ridges. The buoyancy of the aggregates was also evident from analysis of the aggregate size distribution. Different approaches used to estimate aggregate biomass yield a wide range of results. This highlights that special care must be taken when upscaling observations and comparing results from surveys conducted using different methods or on different spatial scales.

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    Authors: Jessen, Gerdhard L; Pantoja, Silvio; Schubert, Carsten J; Struck, Ulrich; +1 Authors

    Biogeochemical measurements in sediment cores collected with a TV-MUC in the Black Sea during MSM15/1, Northwest Crimea (HYPOX Project), at water depths between 105-207 m. Sampling was performed along gradient of oxygen bottom water concentrations between oxic (150 µmol L-1), variable hypoxic (3-60 µmol L-1 O2) and anoxic, sulfidic conditions. concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and nitrogen (N) were measured on finely powdered, freeze-dried subsamples of sediment using a using a Fisons NA-1500 elemental analyzer. For organic carbon determination samples were pre-treated with 12.5% HCl to remove carbonates. Chlorophyll a (chl a), phaeopigments (PHAEO) and chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) was measured according to Schubert et al., (2005) and total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA) and single amino acid: ASP, GLU, SER, HIS, GLY, THR, ARG, ALA, TYR, MET, VAL, PHE, ILE, LEU, LYS following Dauwe et al., 1998.

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    Authors: Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth;

    Bacterial biofilms provide cues for the settlement of marine invertebrates such as coral larvae, and are therefore important for the resilience and recovery of coral reefs. This study aimed to better understand how ocean acidification may affect the community composition and diversity of bacterial biofilms on surfaces under naturally reduced pH conditions. Settlement tiles were deployed at coral reefs in Papua New Guinea along pH gradients created by two CO2 seeps, and upper and lower tiles surfaces were sampled 5 and 13 months after deployment. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis were used to characterize more than 200 separate bacterial communities, complemented by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of 16 samples. The bacterial biofilm consisted predominantly of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Cytophaga, whereas putative settlement-inducing taxa only accounted for a small fraction of the community. Bacterial biofilm composition was heterogeneous with approximately 25% shared operational taxonomic units between samples. Among the observed environmental parameters, pH only had a weak effect on community composition (R² ~ 1%) and did not affect community richness and evenness. In contrast, there were strong differences between upper and lower surfaces (contrasting in light exposure and grazing intensity). There also appeared to be a strong interaction between bacterial biofilm composition and the macroscopic components of the tile community. Our results suggest that on mature settlement surfaces in situ, pH does not have a strong impact on the composition of bacterial biofilms. Other abiotic and biotic factors such as light exposure and interactions with other organisms may be more important in shaping bacterial biofilms than changes in seawater pH.

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    Authors: Braeckman, Ulrike; Janssen, Felix; Lavik, Gaute; Elvert, Marcus; +4 Authors

    This is a dataset from an in situ experiment at station S2 from the LTER monitoring site HAUSGARTEN, performed in June-July 2013 during Maria S Merian expedition MSM29. The in situ responses of Arctic deep-sea benthos to input of phytodetritus of a diatom (Thalassiosira sp.) as opposed to a coccolithophorid (Emiliania huxleyi) were investigated in incubation chambers of benthic landers. Using 13C and 15N labelled phytodetritus harvested from cultures of these species, we traced the fate of the respective phytodetritus into different parts of the food web (respiration, assimilation by bacteria and infauna >250 µm), in a short (4d) and long (14d) term experiment. The benthic landers were lowered to the sea floor, where they enclosed ~ 20cm of sediment and ~10 cm of overlying water. During respectively 4d and 14d, the temperature and concentrations of O2, DIC, 13C-DIC, NHx, NOx, 15N-NH4, 15N-NOx were measured. Upon recovery of the landers, the sediment was retrieved and subsampled in vertical horizons to measure pigment, TOC and TN, 13C-POC and 15N-PN concentrations, pore water concentrations of DIC, 13C-DIC, NHx, NOx, 15N-NH4 and 15N-NOx and the assimilation of 13C in bacterial fatty acids (iC15:0 and aiC15:0) and in fauna > 250 µm

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    Authors: Rybakova, Elena; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Vedenin, Andrey; Boetius, Antje; +1 Authors

    Quantitative camera surveys of benthic megafauna were carried out during the expedition ARK-XXVII/3 to the Eastern Central Arctic basins with the research icebreaker Polarstern in summer 2012 (2 August-29 September). Nine transects were performed for the first time in deep-sea areas previously fully covered by ice, four of them in the Nansen Basin (3571-4066m) and five in the Amundsen Basin (4041-4384m). At seven of these stations benthic Agassiz trawls were taken near the camera tracks for species identification.

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    Authors: Kiesel, Joshua; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Link, Heike;

    During the RV Polarstern expedition PS94, we gathered sediment samples in the Barents Sea and the central Arctic Ocean by deploying both a multiple corer (MUC) and a giant boxcorer (GKG). After retrieval of the MUC or GKG, replicate sediment cores with a visibly intact sediment surface were chosen for further laboratory analysis. The selected cores were brought to the laboratory on board RV Polarstern for further analysis. While data on chlorophyll pigments, total organic carbon, microbial cell numbers and diffusive oxygen uptake rates were taken from the same cores, total oxygen uptake rates were measured in three additional cores.

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    Authors: Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Rabe, Benjamin; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; +2 Authors

    The ice-covered Central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. It has been speculated that the recent reduction in ice cover could lead to a substantial increase in primary production, but still little is known as to the fate of the ice-associated primary production, and of nutrient supply with increasing warming. This study presents results from the Central Arctic Ocean collected during summer 2012, when sea-ice reached a minimum extent since the onset of satellite observations. Net primary productivity (NPP) was measured in water column, sea ice and melt ponds by 14CO2 uptake at different irradiances. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PI) curves were established in laboratory experiments and used to upscale measured NPP to the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78°N) using the irradiance-based Central Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity model (CAOPP). In addition, new annual production was calculated from the seasonal nutrient drawdown in the mixed layer since last winter. Results show that ice algae can contribute up to 60% to primary production in the Central Arctic at the end of the season. The ice-covered water column had lower NPP rates than open water probably due to light limitation. According to the nutrient ratios in the euphotic zone, nitrate limitation was detected in the Siberian Seas (Laptev Sea area), while silicate was the main limiting nutrient at the ice margin influenced by Atlantic waters. Although sea-ice cover was substantially reduced in 2012, total annual new production in the Eurasian Basin was 17 ± 7 Tg C/yr, which is similar to previous estimates. However, when including the contribution by sub-ice algal filaments, the annual production for the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78°N) is 16 Tg C/yr higher than estimated before. Our data suggest that sub-ice algae might be responsible for potential local increases in NPP due to higher light availability under the ice, and their ability to benefit from a wider area of nutrients as they drift with the ice.

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    Authors: Hassenrück, Christiane; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Ramette, Alban;

    To understand how ocean acidification (OA) influences sediment microbial communities, naturally CO2-rich sites are increasingly being used as OA analogues. However, the characterization of these naturally CO2-rich sites is often limited to OA-related variables, neglecting additional environmental variables that may confound OA effects. Here, we used an extensive array of sediment and bottom water parameters to evaluate pH effects on sediment microbial communities at hydrothermal CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The geochemical composition of the sediment pore water showed variations in the hydrothermal signature at seep sites with comparable pH, allowing the identification of sites that may better represent future OA scenarios. At these sites, we detected a 60% shift in the microbial community composition compared with reference sites, mostly related to increases in Chloroflexi sequences. pH was among the factors significantly, yet not mainly, explaining changes in microbial community composition. pH variation may therefore often not be the primary cause of microbial changes when sampling is done along complex environmental gradients. Thus, we recommend an ecosystem approach when assessing OA effects on sediment microbial communities under natural conditions. This will enable a more reliable quantification of OA effects via a reduction of potential confounding effects. This pangaea entry contains the data on the microbial community structure and bottom water parameters.

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    Authors: Molari, Massimiliano; Guilini, Katja; Lott, Christian; Weber, Miriam; +10 Authors

    Subseabed CO2 storage is considered a future climate change mitigation technology. We investigated the ecological consequences of CO2 leakage for a marine benthic ecosystem. For the first time with a multidisciplinary integrated study, we tested hypotheses derived from a meta-analysis of previous experimental and in situ high-CO2 impact studies. For this, we compared ecological functions of naturally CO2-vented seafloor off the Mediterranean island Panarea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) to those of nonvented sands, with a focus on biogeochemical processes and microbial and faunal community composition. High CO2 fluxes (up to 4 to 7 mol CO2 m−2 hour−1) dissolved all sedimentary carbonate, and comigration of silicate and iron led to local increases of microphytobenthos productivity (+450%) and standing stocks (+300%). Despite the higher food availability, faunal biomass (−80%) and trophic diversity were substantially lower compared to those at the reference site. Bacterial communities were also structurally and functionally affected, most notably in the composition of heterotrophs and microbial sulfate reduction rates (−90%). The observed ecological effects of CO2 leakage on submarine sands were reproduced with medium-term transplant experiments. This study assesses indicators of environmental impact by CO2 leakage and finds that community compositions and important ecological functions are permanently altered under high CO2.

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    Authors: Hoffmann, Katy; Bienhold, Christina; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Laso-Pérez, Rafael; +3 Authors

    The present study aimed at a first characterization of the enigmatic JTB255 marine benthic group in deep-sea sediments, by: i) confirming the abundance and ubiquitous distribution of JTB255 in deep-sea sediments globally, ii) refining the phylogenetic positioning of the JTB255 clade within the \u03b3-Proteobacteria, iii) distinguishing potential ecotypes within the JTB255 clade, iv) providing first insights into the metabolic potential of deep-sea representatives of this clade. Therefore, two single cell genomes from Arctic HAUSGARTEN deep-se surface sediments were obtained and CARD-FISH counts of total cells, y-Proteobacteria and the JTB255 marine benthic group performed.

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    Authors: Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Nicolaus, Marcel;

    The ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has been changing dramatically in the last decades and the consequences for the sea-ice associated ecosystem remain difficult to assess. Algal aggregates underneath sea ice have been described sporadically but the frequency and distribution of their occurrence is not well quantified. We used upward looking images obtained by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to derive estimates of ice algal aggregate biomass and to investigate their spatial distribution. During the IceArc expedition (ARK-XXVII/3) of RV Polarstern in late summer 2012, different types of algal aggregates were observed floating underneath various ice types in the Central Arctic basins. Our results show that the floe scale distribution of algal aggregates in late summer is very patchy and determined by the topography of the ice underside, with aggregates collecting in dome shaped structures and at the edges of pressure ridges. The buoyancy of the aggregates was also evident from analysis of the aggregate size distribution. Different approaches used to estimate aggregate biomass yield a wide range of results. This highlights that special care must be taken when upscaling observations and comparing results from surveys conducted using different methods or on different spatial scales.

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    Authors: Jessen, Gerdhard L; Pantoja, Silvio; Schubert, Carsten J; Struck, Ulrich; +1 Authors

    Biogeochemical measurements in sediment cores collected with a TV-MUC in the Black Sea during MSM15/1, Northwest Crimea (HYPOX Project), at water depths between 105-207 m. Sampling was performed along gradient of oxygen bottom water concentrations between oxic (150 µmol L-1), variable hypoxic (3-60 µmol L-1 O2) and anoxic, sulfidic conditions. concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and nitrogen (N) were measured on finely powdered, freeze-dried subsamples of sediment using a using a Fisons NA-1500 elemental analyzer. For organic carbon determination samples were pre-treated with 12.5% HCl to remove carbonates. Chlorophyll a (chl a), phaeopigments (PHAEO) and chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) was measured according to Schubert et al., (2005) and total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA) and single amino acid: ASP, GLU, SER, HIS, GLY, THR, ARG, ALA, TYR, MET, VAL, PHE, ILE, LEU, LYS following Dauwe et al., 1998.

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