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224 Research products, page 1 of 23

  • European Marine Science
  • European Commission
  • EC|H2020
  • STEMM-CCS

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jerry Blackford; Guttorm Alendal; Yuri Artioli; Helge Avlesen; P Cazenave; Baixin Chen; Andrew W. Dale; Marius Dewar; Maribel I. García-Ibáñez; Jonas Gros; +7 more
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    This paper describes the utility of developing marine system models to aid the efficient and regulatory compliant development of offshore carbon storage, maximising containment assurance by well-planned monitoring strategies. Using examples from several model systems, we show that marine models allow us to characterize the chemical perturbations arising from hypothetical release scenarios whilst concurrently quantifying the natural variability of the system with respect to the same chemical signatures. Consequently models can identify a range of potential leakage anomaly detection criteria, identifying the most sensitive discriminators applicable to a given site or season. Further, using models as in-silico testbeds we can devise the most cost-efficient deployment of sensors to maximise detection of CO2 leakage. Modelling studies can also contribute to the required risk assessments, by quantifying potential impact from hypothetical release scenarios. Finally, given this demonstrable potential we discuss the challenges to ensuring model systems are available, fit for purpose and transferable to CCS operations across the globe.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Linke, Peter; Haeckel, Matthias;
    Publisher: GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    Poseidon cruise 518 (leg 1 and 2) took place in the framework of the Horizon 2020 project STEMM-CCS of the EU. The project’s main goal is to develop and test strategies and technologies for the monitoring of subseafloor CO2 storage operations. In this context a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment is planned for 2019 in the vicinity of the Goldeneye platform located in the British EEZ (central North Sea). Cruise POS518 aimed at collecting necessary oceanographic and biogeochemical baseline data for this release experiment. During Leg 1 ROV PHOCA was used to deploy MPI’s tool for high-precision measurements of O2, CO2 and pH in the bottom water at Goldeneye. In addition, ROV push cores and gravity cores were collected in the area for sediment biogeochemical analyses, and video-CTD casts were conducted to study the water column chemistry. The stereo-camera system and a horizontally looking multibeam echosounder, both, for determining gas bubble emissions at the seafloor were deployed at the Figge Maar blowout crater in the German Bight. Investigations were complemented by hydroacoustic surveys detecting gas bubble leakages at several abandoned wells in the North Sea as well as the Figge Maar. Surface water alkalinity as well as CH4, CO2, and water partial pressures in the air above the sea surface were measured continuously during the cruise. During Leg 2 three different benthic lander systems were deployed to obtain baseline data of oceanographic and biogeochemical parameters for a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment planned for 2019. The first lander was equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a CTD and an O2 optode. It was deployed for 6 days close to Goldeneye to obtain high resolution data which can be linked to the long-term measurements of the NOC-Lander. This lander is equipped with a suite of sensors to monitor temperature, conductivity, pressure, current speed and direction, hydro-acoustic, pH, pCO2, O2 and nutrients over a period of about 10 months with popup telemetry units for data transmission via IRIDIUM satellite telemetry every 3 months. Two short-term deployments of the Biogeochemical Observatory (BIGO) were conducted to study the molar ratio between oxygen and CO2-fluxes at the seafloor. Sediment cores obtained by gravity and multi corer were collected for sediment biogeochemical analyses and video-CTD casts were used to study the chemistry of the water column.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lisa Vielstädte; Peter Linke; Mark Schmidt; Stefan Sommer; Matthias Haeckel; Malte Braack; Klaus Wallmann;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462), EC | EUROFLEETS (228344)

    Highlights • CO2 gas bubbles are completely dissolved within 2 m above the seabed. • CO2 is not emitted into the atmosphere but retained in the North Sea. • Dissolved CO2 is rapidly dispersed by tidal currents in the North Sea. • Harmful effects on benthic biota occur in the direct vicinity of the leak. • Monitoring has to be performed at the seabed and close to the leak. Abstract Existing wells pose a risk for the loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) from storage sites, which might compromise the suitability of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies as climate change mitigation options. Here, we show results of a controlled CO2 release experiment at the Sleipner CO2 storage site and numerical simulations that evaluate the detectability and environmental consequences of a well leaking CO2 into the Central North Sea (CNS). Our field measurements and numerical results demonstrate that the detectability and impact of a leakage of <55 t yr−1 of CO2 would be limited to bottom waters and a small area around the leak, due to rapid CO2 bubble dissolution in seawater within the lower 2 m of the water column and quick dispersion of the dissolved CO2 plume by strong tidal currents. As such, the consequences of a single well leaking CO2 are found to be insignificant in terms of storage performance. Only prolonged leakage along numerous wells might compromise long-term CO2 storage and may adversely affect the local marine ecosystem. Since many abandoned wells leak natural gas into the marine environment, hydrocarbon provinces with a high density of wells may not always be the most suitable areas for CO2 storage.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christoph Staudinger; Johanna Breininger; Ingo Klimant; Sergey M. Borisov;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    New aza-BODIPY pH indicators with spectral properties modulated solely by photoinduced electron transfer (PET) are presented. The pH sensitive hydroxyl group is located in the meta-position of a phenyl substituent with respect to the aza-BODIPY core, which eliminates the conjugation to the chromophore. The new dyes show reversible "on"-"off" fluorescence response upon deprotonation of the receptor but no changes in the absorption spectrum, which is in contrast to state-of-the-art indicators of the aza-BODIPY family. This eliminates potential changes in the efficiency of the inner filter effect and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and makes the new dyes suitable acceptors in light harvesting systems used for ratiometric pH imaging. The introduction of electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups into the receptor results in a set of indicators suitable for measurements from physiological (pH 7) to very alkaline (pH 13) conditions. The new sensors are particularly promising for monitoring of pH changes in concrete, as was recently shown elsewhere.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xu Chao; Mingxing Wu; Zhou Tian; Jianghui Li; Du Weidong; Wanyuan Zhang; Paul R. White;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    In recent years, most multibeam echo sounders (MBESs) have been able to collect water column image (WCI) data while performing seabed topography measurements, providing effective data sources for gas-leakage detection. However, there can be systematic (e.g., sidelobe interference) or natural disturbances in the images, which may introduce challenges for automatic detection of gas leaks. In this paper, we design two data-processing schemes to estimate motion velocities based on the Farneback optical flow principle according to types of WCIs, including time-angle and depth-across track images. Moreover, by combining the estimated motion velocities with the amplitudes of the image pixels, several decision thresholds are used to eliminate interferences, such as the seabed, non-gas backscatters in the water column, etc. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we simulated the scenarios of pipeline leakage in a pool and the Songhua Lake, Jilin Province, China, and used a HT300 PA MBES (it was developed by Harbin Engineering University and its operating frequency is 300 kHz) to collect acoustic data in static and dynamic conditions. The results show that the proposed method can automatically detect underwater leaking gases, and both data-processing schemes have similar detection performance.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Romina Gehrmann; Giuseppe Provenzano; Christoph Böttner; Héctor Marín-Moreno; Gaye Bayrakci; Yee Y. Tan; Naima Yilo; Axel T. Djanni; Karen Weitemeyer; Timothy A. Minshull; +3 more
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    Abstract We present porosity and free gas estimates and their uncertainties at an active methane venting site in the UK sector of the North Sea. We performed a multi-disciplinary experiment at the Scanner Pockmark area in about 150 m water depth to investigate the physical properties of fluid flow structures within unconsolidated glaciomarine sediments. Here, we focus on the towed controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data analysis with constraints from seismic reflection and core logging data. Inferred background resistivity values vary between 0.6–1 Ω m at the surface and 1.9–2.4 Ω m at 150 mbsf. We calibrate Archie’s parameters with measurements on cores, and estimate porosities of about 50 ± 10 % at the seafloor decreasing to 25 ± 3 % at 150 mbsf which matches variations expected for mechanical compaction of clay rich sediments. High reflectivity in seismic reflection data is consistent with the existence of a gas pocket. A synthetic study of varying gas content in this gas pocket shows that at least 33 ± 8 % of free gas is required to cause a distinct CSEM data anomaly. Real data inversions with seismic constraints support the presence of up to 34 ± 14 % free gas in a 30–40 m thick gas pocket underneath the pockmark within the stratigraphic highs of a till layer above the glacial unconformity in the Aberdeen Ground Formation.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Böttner, Christoph; Berndt, Christian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    High-resolution 2D seismic reflection data during research cruise MSM63 in April/May 2017 onboard RV Maria S. Merian. The seismic profiles were acquired with a two-105/105-in3-GI-Gun-array shot at 210 bar every 5 seconds and a 150 m-long streamer with 96 channels and 1.5625 m channel spacing. The resulting shot point distance is approximately 8.75-12.5 m at 3.5-5 kn ship speed. The frequency range of the two-GI-Gun-array is 15-500 Hz. The processing included geometry and delay corrections, static corrections, binning to 1.5625 m and bandpass filtering with corner frequencies of 25, 45, 420, and 500 Hz. Furthermore, a normal-move-out-correction (with a constant velocity of 1488 m/s calculated from CTD measurements) was applied and the data were stacked and then migrated using a 2D Stolt algorithm (1500 m/s constant velocity model). Sub-bottom profiler data acquired during cruise MSM63 using Parasound P70 with 4 kHz as the secondary low frequency to obtain seismic images of the upper 100 m below the seafloor with very high vertical resolution (< 15 cm). We applied a frequency filter (low cut 2 kHz, high cut 6 kHz, 2 iterations) and calculated the envelope within the seismic interpretation software IHS Kingdom. Bathymetric data were acquired with the EM712 system mounted to the hull of RV Maria S. Merian. The survey was designed to provide high-resolution bathymetry with 5 x 5 m resolution. We processed the data using MB Systems software (Caress & Chayes, 2017) and included statistical evaluation of soundings that increased the signal-to-noise ratio. The sound velocity profile for multibeam processing was measured at the beginning and at the end of the cruise.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gros, Jonas; Esposito, Mario; Saw, Kevin Antony;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    ADCP data for a long-term lander deployment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Weiß, Tim; Elsen, Saskia; Esposito, Mario;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    A gas inlet was installed at the bow of RV Poseidon.Atmospheric gas concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were measured continuously with a Picarro G2301-f analyzer.Concentrations are given as “ppmV in dry air”.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Weiß, Tim; Elsen, Saskia; Esposito, Mario;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    A gas inlet was installed at the bow of RV Poseidon.Atmospheric gas concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were measured continuously with a Picarro G2301-f analyzer.Concentrations are given as “ppmV in dry air”.

search
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
224 Research products, page 1 of 23
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jerry Blackford; Guttorm Alendal; Yuri Artioli; Helge Avlesen; P Cazenave; Baixin Chen; Andrew W. Dale; Marius Dewar; Maribel I. García-Ibáñez; Jonas Gros; +7 more
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    This paper describes the utility of developing marine system models to aid the efficient and regulatory compliant development of offshore carbon storage, maximising containment assurance by well-planned monitoring strategies. Using examples from several model systems, we show that marine models allow us to characterize the chemical perturbations arising from hypothetical release scenarios whilst concurrently quantifying the natural variability of the system with respect to the same chemical signatures. Consequently models can identify a range of potential leakage anomaly detection criteria, identifying the most sensitive discriminators applicable to a given site or season. Further, using models as in-silico testbeds we can devise the most cost-efficient deployment of sensors to maximise detection of CO2 leakage. Modelling studies can also contribute to the required risk assessments, by quantifying potential impact from hypothetical release scenarios. Finally, given this demonstrable potential we discuss the challenges to ensuring model systems are available, fit for purpose and transferable to CCS operations across the globe.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Linke, Peter; Haeckel, Matthias;
    Publisher: GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    Poseidon cruise 518 (leg 1 and 2) took place in the framework of the Horizon 2020 project STEMM-CCS of the EU. The project’s main goal is to develop and test strategies and technologies for the monitoring of subseafloor CO2 storage operations. In this context a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment is planned for 2019 in the vicinity of the Goldeneye platform located in the British EEZ (central North Sea). Cruise POS518 aimed at collecting necessary oceanographic and biogeochemical baseline data for this release experiment. During Leg 1 ROV PHOCA was used to deploy MPI’s tool for high-precision measurements of O2, CO2 and pH in the bottom water at Goldeneye. In addition, ROV push cores and gravity cores were collected in the area for sediment biogeochemical analyses, and video-CTD casts were conducted to study the water column chemistry. The stereo-camera system and a horizontally looking multibeam echosounder, both, for determining gas bubble emissions at the seafloor were deployed at the Figge Maar blowout crater in the German Bight. Investigations were complemented by hydroacoustic surveys detecting gas bubble leakages at several abandoned wells in the North Sea as well as the Figge Maar. Surface water alkalinity as well as CH4, CO2, and water partial pressures in the air above the sea surface were measured continuously during the cruise. During Leg 2 three different benthic lander systems were deployed to obtain baseline data of oceanographic and biogeochemical parameters for a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment planned for 2019. The first lander was equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a CTD and an O2 optode. It was deployed for 6 days close to Goldeneye to obtain high resolution data which can be linked to the long-term measurements of the NOC-Lander. This lander is equipped with a suite of sensors to monitor temperature, conductivity, pressure, current speed and direction, hydro-acoustic, pH, pCO2, O2 and nutrients over a period of about 10 months with popup telemetry units for data transmission via IRIDIUM satellite telemetry every 3 months. Two short-term deployments of the Biogeochemical Observatory (BIGO) were conducted to study the molar ratio between oxygen and CO2-fluxes at the seafloor. Sediment cores obtained by gravity and multi corer were collected for sediment biogeochemical analyses and video-CTD casts were used to study the chemistry of the water column.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lisa Vielstädte; Peter Linke; Mark Schmidt; Stefan Sommer; Matthias Haeckel; Malte Braack; Klaus Wallmann;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462), EC | EUROFLEETS (228344)

    Highlights • CO2 gas bubbles are completely dissolved within 2 m above the seabed. • CO2 is not emitted into the atmosphere but retained in the North Sea. • Dissolved CO2 is rapidly dispersed by tidal currents in the North Sea. • Harmful effects on benthic biota occur in the direct vicinity of the leak. • Monitoring has to be performed at the seabed and close to the leak. Abstract Existing wells pose a risk for the loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) from storage sites, which might compromise the suitability of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies as climate change mitigation options. Here, we show results of a controlled CO2 release experiment at the Sleipner CO2 storage site and numerical simulations that evaluate the detectability and environmental consequences of a well leaking CO2 into the Central North Sea (CNS). Our field measurements and numerical results demonstrate that the detectability and impact of a leakage of <55 t yr−1 of CO2 would be limited to bottom waters and a small area around the leak, due to rapid CO2 bubble dissolution in seawater within the lower 2 m of the water column and quick dispersion of the dissolved CO2 plume by strong tidal currents. As such, the consequences of a single well leaking CO2 are found to be insignificant in terms of storage performance. Only prolonged leakage along numerous wells might compromise long-term CO2 storage and may adversely affect the local marine ecosystem. Since many abandoned wells leak natural gas into the marine environment, hydrocarbon provinces with a high density of wells may not always be the most suitable areas for CO2 storage.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christoph Staudinger; Johanna Breininger; Ingo Klimant; Sergey M. Borisov;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    New aza-BODIPY pH indicators with spectral properties modulated solely by photoinduced electron transfer (PET) are presented. The pH sensitive hydroxyl group is located in the meta-position of a phenyl substituent with respect to the aza-BODIPY core, which eliminates the conjugation to the chromophore. The new dyes show reversible "on"-"off" fluorescence response upon deprotonation of the receptor but no changes in the absorption spectrum, which is in contrast to state-of-the-art indicators of the aza-BODIPY family. This eliminates potential changes in the efficiency of the inner filter effect and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and makes the new dyes suitable acceptors in light harvesting systems used for ratiometric pH imaging. The introduction of electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups into the receptor results in a set of indicators suitable for measurements from physiological (pH 7) to very alkaline (pH 13) conditions. The new sensors are particularly promising for monitoring of pH changes in concrete, as was recently shown elsewhere.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xu Chao; Mingxing Wu; Zhou Tian; Jianghui Li; Du Weidong; Wanyuan Zhang; Paul R. White;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    In recent years, most multibeam echo sounders (MBESs) have been able to collect water column image (WCI) data while performing seabed topography measurements, providing effective data sources for gas-leakage detection. However, there can be systematic (e.g., sidelobe interference) or natural disturbances in the images, which may introduce challenges for automatic detection of gas leaks. In this paper, we design two data-processing schemes to estimate motion velocities based on the Farneback optical flow principle according to types of WCIs, including time-angle and depth-across track images. Moreover, by combining the estimated motion velocities with the amplitudes of the image pixels, several decision thresholds are used to eliminate interferences, such as the seabed, non-gas backscatters in the water column, etc. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we simulated the scenarios of pipeline leakage in a pool and the Songhua Lake, Jilin Province, China, and used a HT300 PA MBES (it was developed by Harbin Engineering University and its operating frequency is 300 kHz) to collect acoustic data in static and dynamic conditions. The results show that the proposed method can automatically detect underwater leaking gases, and both data-processing schemes have similar detection performance.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Romina Gehrmann; Giuseppe Provenzano; Christoph Böttner; Héctor Marín-Moreno; Gaye Bayrakci; Yee Y. Tan; Naima Yilo; Axel T. Djanni; Karen Weitemeyer; Timothy A. Minshull; +3 more
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    Abstract We present porosity and free gas estimates and their uncertainties at an active methane venting site in the UK sector of the North Sea. We performed a multi-disciplinary experiment at the Scanner Pockmark area in about 150 m water depth to investigate the physical properties of fluid flow structures within unconsolidated glaciomarine sediments. Here, we focus on the towed controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data analysis with constraints from seismic reflection and core logging data. Inferred background resistivity values vary between 0.6–1 Ω m at the surface and 1.9–2.4 Ω m at 150 mbsf. We calibrate Archie’s parameters with measurements on cores, and estimate porosities of about 50 ± 10 % at the seafloor decreasing to 25 ± 3 % at 150 mbsf which matches variations expected for mechanical compaction of clay rich sediments. High reflectivity in seismic reflection data is consistent with the existence of a gas pocket. A synthetic study of varying gas content in this gas pocket shows that at least 33 ± 8 % of free gas is required to cause a distinct CSEM data anomaly. Real data inversions with seismic constraints support the presence of up to 34 ± 14 % free gas in a 30–40 m thick gas pocket underneath the pockmark within the stratigraphic highs of a till layer above the glacial unconformity in the Aberdeen Ground Formation.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Böttner, Christoph; Berndt, Christian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    High-resolution 2D seismic reflection data during research cruise MSM63 in April/May 2017 onboard RV Maria S. Merian. The seismic profiles were acquired with a two-105/105-in3-GI-Gun-array shot at 210 bar every 5 seconds and a 150 m-long streamer with 96 channels and 1.5625 m channel spacing. The resulting shot point distance is approximately 8.75-12.5 m at 3.5-5 kn ship speed. The frequency range of the two-GI-Gun-array is 15-500 Hz. The processing included geometry and delay corrections, static corrections, binning to 1.5625 m and bandpass filtering with corner frequencies of 25, 45, 420, and 500 Hz. Furthermore, a normal-move-out-correction (with a constant velocity of 1488 m/s calculated from CTD measurements) was applied and the data were stacked and then migrated using a 2D Stolt algorithm (1500 m/s constant velocity model). Sub-bottom profiler data acquired during cruise MSM63 using Parasound P70 with 4 kHz as the secondary low frequency to obtain seismic images of the upper 100 m below the seafloor with very high vertical resolution (< 15 cm). We applied a frequency filter (low cut 2 kHz, high cut 6 kHz, 2 iterations) and calculated the envelope within the seismic interpretation software IHS Kingdom. Bathymetric data were acquired with the EM712 system mounted to the hull of RV Maria S. Merian. The survey was designed to provide high-resolution bathymetry with 5 x 5 m resolution. We processed the data using MB Systems software (Caress & Chayes, 2017) and included statistical evaluation of soundings that increased the signal-to-noise ratio. The sound velocity profile for multibeam processing was measured at the beginning and at the end of the cruise.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gros, Jonas; Esposito, Mario; Saw, Kevin Antony;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    ADCP data for a long-term lander deployment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Weiß, Tim; Elsen, Saskia; Esposito, Mario;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    A gas inlet was installed at the bow of RV Poseidon.Atmospheric gas concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were measured continuously with a Picarro G2301-f analyzer.Concentrations are given as “ppmV in dry air”.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Weiß, Tim; Elsen, Saskia; Esposito, Mario;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | STEMM-CCS (654462)

    A gas inlet was installed at the bow of RV Poseidon.Atmospheric gas concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were measured continuously with a Picarro G2301-f analyzer.Concentrations are given as “ppmV in dry air”.