Plain Language Summary\ud The Last Interglacial period (LIG, 116,000 to 130,000 years ago) was globally ∼ 0.8 °C warmer than today at its peak, with substantially more warming at the poles. It is a valuable analogue for future global temperature rise, especially for understanding rates and sources of polar ice melt and subsequent global sea level rise. Records of water stable isotopes from Antarctic ice cores have been crucial for understanding past polar temperature during the LIG. However we currently lack a framework for estimating how changes in the ice sheet elevation, alongside sea‐ice feedbacks, affect these water stable isotopes. To address this, we examine the effect of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) elevation on water stable isotopes, using an ensemble of climate simulations where we vary the AIS elevation. We observe that (i) water stable isotope values lower with increasing AIS elevation following linear relationships, (ii) the effect of sea‐ice induced by AIS elevation is small so the effect of AIS elevation can be isolated. Finally, this study provides appropriate elevation‐water stable isotope gradients for the reconstruction of the AIS topography using ice cores.\ud Abstract\ud Changes of the topography of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) can complicate the interpretation of ice core water stable isotope measurements in terms of temperature. Here, we use a set of idealised AIS elevation change scenarios to investigate this for the warm Last Interglacial (LIG). We show that LIG δ 18 O against elevation relationships are not uniform across Antarctica, and that the LIG response to elevation is lower than the preindustrial response. The effect of LIG elevation‐induced sea ice changes on δ 18 O is small, allowing us to isolate the effect of elevation change alone. Our results help to define the effect of AIS changes on the LIG δ 18 O signals, and should be invaluable to those seeking to use AIS ice core measurements for these purposes. Especially, our simulations strengthen the conclusion that ice core measurements from the Talos Dome core exclude the loss of the Wilkes Basin at around 128 ky.
Abstract. There are enormous costs involved in transporting snow and ice samples to home laboratories for “simple” analyses in order to constrain annual layer thicknesses and identify accumulation rates of specific sites. It is well known that depositional noise, incurred from factors such as wind drifts, seasonally biased deposition and melt layers can influence individual snow and firn records and that multiple cores are required to produce statistically robust time series. Thus, at many sites, core samples are measured in the field for densification, but the annual accumulation and the content of chemical impurities are often represented by just one core to reduce transport costs. We have developed a portable “lightweight in situ analysis” (LISA) box for ice, firn and snow analysis that is capable of constraining annual layers through the continuous flow analysis of meltwater conductivity and hydrogen peroxide under field conditions. The box can run using a small gasoline generator and weighs less than 50 kg. The LISA box was tested under field conditions at the East Greenland Ice-core Project (EastGRIP) deep ice core drilling site in northern Greenland. Analysis of the top 2 m of snow from seven sites in northern Greenland allowed the reconstruction of regional snow accumulation patterns for the 2015–2018 period (summer to summer).
This is accumulation data is derived from the Light weight In Situ Analysis (LISA) box at the EastGRIP ice coring site in Greenland in summer 2019, by means of H2O2 summer peak identification and mean densities from 1 meter snow tubes.
The RECAP ice core was drilled on Renland ice cap, coastal East Greenland, in May-June 2015. This dataset presents the first complete timescale for the ice core record, based on impurity (dust and chemistry) as well as gas content measurements. The underlying dust particle and gas (CH4, d15N and d18Oair) data are presented. Strontium and Neodymium measurements of potential dust source samples collected from exposed terrain in central East Greenland are also presented. The timescale is called 'RECAP GICC05modelext Time Scale (version 1/3-2018)' and has been synchronized to the existing GICC05modelext timescale. All synchronization tiepoints are presented.
Hurricanes are the most destructive natural disasters in the United States. The record of economic damage from hurricanes shows a steep positive trend dominated by increases in wealth. It is necessary to account for temporal changes in exposed wealth, in a process called normalization, before we can compare the destructiveness of recorded damaging storms from different areas and at different times. Atmospheric models predict major hurricanes to get more intense as Earth warms, and we expect this trend to eventually emerge above the natural variability in the record of normalized damage. However, the evidence for an increasing trend in normalized damage since 1900 has been controversial. In this study, we develop a record of normalized damage since 1900 based on an equivalent area of total destruction. Here, we show that this record has an improved signal-to-noise ratio over earlier normalization schemes based on calculations of present-day economic damage. Our data reveal an emergent positive trend in damage, which we attribute to a detectable change in extreme storms due to global warming. Moreover, we show that this increasing trend in damage can also be exposed in existing normalized damage records by looking at the frequency of the largest damage events. Our record of normalized damage, framed in terms of an equivalent area of total destruction, is a more reliable measure for climate-related changes in extreme weather, and can be used for better risk assessments on hurricane disasters.
This dataset contains model output for the simulations presented in "Neodymium isotopes as a paleo-water mass tracer: A model-data reassessment, Quaternary Science Reviews 279 (2022), 107404". The NetCDF4 files contain the following variables: 3D fields: Potential Temperature Salinity North Atlantic dye tracer Epsilon Nd Nd concentration 2D field: AMOC stream function
Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Project: EC | TiPES (820970)
Authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide derived neodymium isotope data since the last glacial extracted by weekly reductive leaching. Isotope ratios are normalized to 146Nd/144Nd = 0.7219 and were analyzed on two Neptune Plus MC-ICP-MS at GEOMAR, Kiel and Heidelberg University, Germany.
Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.