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  • European Marine Science
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; +49 Authors

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    The Cryosphere
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: DI-fusion
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: JAIRO
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
    Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Cryosphere
      Article . 2020
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      DI-fusion
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: DI-fusion
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: JAIRO
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
      Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/...
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      The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2020
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jeannine Cavender-Bares; Shan Kothari; Jose Eduardo Meireles; Matthew A. Kaproth; +2 Authors

    Premise of the StudyEvolutionary and biogeographic history, including past environmental change and diversification processes, are likely to have influenced the expansion, migration, and extinction of populations, creating evolutionary legacy effects that influence regional species pools and the composition of communities. We consider the consequences of the diversification process in shaping trait evolution and assembly of oak‐dominated communities throughout the continental United States (U.S.).MethodsWithin the U.S. oaks, we tested for phylogenetic and functional trait patterns at different spatial scales, taking advantage of a dated phylogenomic analysis of American oaks and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA).Key ResultsWe find (1) phylogenetic overdispersion at small grain sizes throughout the U.S. across all spatial extents and (2) a shift from overdispersion to clustering with increasing grain sizes. Leaf traits have evolved in a convergent manner, and these traits are clustered in communities at all spatial scales, except in the far west, where species with contrasting leaf types co‐occur.ConclusionsOur results support the hypotheses that (1) interspecific interactions were important in parallel adaptive radiation of the genus into a range of habitats across the continent and (2) that the diversification process is a critical driver of community assembly. Functional convergence of complementary species from distinct clades adapted to the same local habitats is a likely mechanism that allows distantly related species to coexist. Our findings contribute to an explanation of the long‐term maintenance of high oak diversity and the dominance of the oak genus in North America.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    American Journal of Botany
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      American Journal of Botany
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christopher R. Schvarcz; Samuel T. Wilson; Mathieu Caffin; Rosalina Stancheva; +6 Authors

    AbstractPersistent nitrogen depletion in sunlit open ocean waters provides a favorable ecological niche for nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacteria, some of which associate symbiotically with eukaryotic algae. All known marine examples of these symbioses have involved either centric diatom or haptophyte hosts. We report here the discovery and characterization of two distinct marine pennate diatom-diazotroph symbioses, which until now had only been observed in freshwater environments. Rhopalodiaceae diatomsEpithemia pelagicasp. nov. andEpithemia catenatasp. nov. were isolated repeatedly from the subtropical North Pacific Ocean, and analysis of sequence libraries reveals a global distribution. These symbioses likely escaped attention because the endosymbionts lack fluorescent photopigments, havenifHgene sequences similar to those of free-living unicellular cyanobacteria, and are lost in nitrogen-replete medium. Marine Rhopalodiaceae-diazotroph symbioses are a previously overlooked but widespread source of bioavailable nitrogen in marine habitats and provide new, easily cultured model organisms for the study of organelle evolution.

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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2022
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    Nature Communications
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2022
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      Nature Communications
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: William Rush; Jean Self-Trail; Yang Zhang; Appy Sluijs; +4 Authors

    Eocene transient global warming events (hyperthermals) can provide insight into a future warmer world. While much research has focused on the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), hyperthermals of a smaller magnitude can be used to characterize climatic responses over different magnitudes of forcing. This study identifies two events, namely the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and H2), in shallow marine sediments of the Eocene-aged Salisbury Embayment of Maryland, based on magnetostratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil, and dinocyst biostratigraphy, as well as the recognition of negative stable carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in biogenic calcite. We assess local environmental change in the Salisbury Embayment, utilizing clay mineralogy, marine palynology, δ18O of biogenic calcite, and biomarker paleothermometry (TEX86). Paleotemperature proxies show broad agreement between surface water and bottom water temperature changes. However, the timing of the warming does not correspond to the CIE of the ETM2 as expected from other records, and the highest values are observed during H2, suggesting factors in addition to pCO2 forcing have influenced temperature changes in the region. The ETM2 interval exhibits a shift in clay mineralogy from smectite-dominated facies to illite-rich facies, suggesting hydroclimatic changes but with a rather dampened weathering response relative to that of the PETM in the same region. Organic walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages show large fluctuations throughout the studied section, none of which seem systematically related to CIE warming. These observations are contrary to the typical tight correspondence between climate change and assemblages across the PETM, regionally and globally, and ETM2 in the Arctic Ocean. The data do indicate very warm and (seasonally) stratified conditions, likely salinity-driven, across H2. The absence of evidence for strong perturbations in local hydrology and nutrient supply during ETM2 and H2, compared to the PETM, is consistent with the less extreme forcing and the warmer pre-event baseline, as well as the non-linear response in hydroclimates to greenhouse forcing.

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    Copernicus Publications
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2023
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    NIOZ Repository
    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
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      NIOZ Repository
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jacob S. Francis; Felicity Muth; Daniel R. Papaj; Anne S. Leonard;

    Lay Summary Many plants reward pollinators with nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein), yet little is known about how bees structure their collection of these 2 resources. We found that bumble bees use information about both the nutritional needs of their colony and floral resources when making decisions about which resources to collect and in what order. These findings offer insight into the ecological consequences of nutritionally diverse floral rewards.

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    Behavioral Ecology
    Article
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    Behavioral Ecology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Behavioral Ecology
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      Behavioral Ecology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jonathan R. Adams; Joanne S. Johnson; Stephen J. Roberts; Philippa J. Mason; +8 Authors

    Evidence for the timing and pace of past grounding line retreat of the Thwaites Glacier system in the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE) of Antarctica provides constraints for models that are used to predict the future trajectory of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Existing cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure ages suggest that Pope Glacier, a former tributary of Thwaites Glacier, experienced rapid thinning in the early to mid-Holocene. There are relatively few exposure ages from the lower ice-free sections of Mt. Murphy (<300 m a.s.l.; metres above sea level) that are uncomplicated by either nuclide inheritance or scatter due to localised topographic complexities; this makes the trajectory for the latter stages of deglaciation uncertain. This paper presents 12 new 10Be exposure ages from erratic cobbles collected from the western flank of Mt. Murphy, within 160 m of the modern ice surface and 1 km from the present grounding line. The ages comprise two tightly clustered populations with mean deglaciation ages of 7.1 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 0.1 ka (1 SE). Linear regression analysis applied to the age–elevation array of all available exposure ages from Mt. Murphy indicates that the median rate of thinning of Pope Glacier was 0.27 m yr−1 between 8.1–6.3 ka, occurring 1.5 times faster than previously thought. Furthermore, this analysis better constrains the uncertainty (95 % confidence interval) in the timing of deglaciation at the base of the Mt. Murphy vertical profile (∼ 80 m above the modern ice surface), shifting it to earlier in the Holocene (from 5.2 ± 0.7 to 6.3 ± 0.4 ka). Taken together, the results presented here suggest that early- to mid-Holocene thinning of Pope Glacier occurred over a shorter interval than previously assumed and permit a longer duration over which subsequent late Holocene re-thickening could have occurred.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . 2022
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-202...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . 2022
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      NERC Open Research Archive
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-202...
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    Authors: Moore, Ryan M.; Harrison, Amelia O.; McAllister, Sean M.; Polson, Shawn W.; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACTPhylogenetic trees are an important analytical tool for evaluating community diversity and evolutionary history. In the case of microorganisms, the decreasing cost of sequencing has enabled researchers to generate ever-larger sequence datasets, which in turn have begun to fill gaps in the evolutionary history of microbial groups. However, phylogenetic analyses of these types of datasets create complex trees that can be challenging to interpret. Scientific inferences made by visual inspection of phylogenetic trees can be simplified and enhanced by customizing various parts of the tree. Yet, manual customization is time-consuming and error prone, and programs designed to assist in batch tree customization often require programming experience or complicated file formats for annotation. Iroki, a user-friendly web interface for tree visualization, addresses these issues by providing automatic customization of large trees based on metadata contained in tab-separated text files. Iroki’s utility for exploring biological and ecological trends in sequencing data was demonstrated through a variety of microbial ecology applications in which trees with hundreds to thousands of leaf nodes were customized according to extensive collections of metadata. The Iroki web application and documentation are available at https://www.iroki.net or through the VIROME portal (http://virome.dbi.udel.edu). Iroki’s source code is released under the MIT license and is available at https://github.com/mooreryan/iroki.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2017
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Puillandre, N.; Modica, M.,; Zhang, Y.; Sirovich, L.; +4 Authors

    AbstractAccelerating the description of biodiversity is a major challenge as extinction rates increase. Integrative taxonomy combining molecular, morphological, ecological and geographical data is seen as the best route to reliably identify species. Classic molluscan taxonomic methodology proposes primary species hypotheses (PSHs) based on shell morphology. However, in hyperdiverse groups, such as the molluscan family Turridae, where most of the species remain unknown and for which homoplasy and plasticity of morphological characters is common, shell‐based PSHs can be arduous. A four‐pronged approach was employed to generate robust species hypotheses of a 1000 specimen South‐West Pacific Turridae data set in which: (i) analysis of COI DNA Barcode gene is coupled with (ii) species delimitation tools GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescence Method) and ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery) to propose PSHs that are then (iii) visualized using Klee diagrams and (iv) evaluated with additional evidence, such as nuclear gene rRNA 28S, morphological characters, geographical and bathymetrical distribution to determine conclusive secondary species hypotheses (SSHs). The integrative taxonomy approach applied identified 87 Turridae species, more than doubling the amount previously known in the Gemmula genus. In contrast to a predominantly shell‐based morphological approach, which over the last 30 years proposed only 13 new species names for the Turridae genus Gemmula, the integrative approach described here identified 27 novel species hypotheses not linked to available species names in the literature. The formalized strategy applied here outlines an effective and reproducible protocol for large‐scale species delimitation of hyperdiverse groups.

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    Molecular Ecology
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2012
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    Molecular Ecology
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Molecular Ecology
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2012
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      Molecular Ecology
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    Authors: Achim Randelhoff; Achim Randelhoff; Johnna Holding; Johnna Holding; +8 Authors

    Arctic Ocean primary productivity is limited by light and inorganic nutrients. With sea ice cover declining in recent decades, nitrate limitation has been speculated to become more prominent. Although much has been learned about nitrate supply from general patterns of ocean circulation and water column stability, a quantitative analysis requires dedicated turbulence measurements that have only started to accumulate in the last dozen years. Here we present new observations of the turbulent vertical nitrate flux in the Laptev Sea, Baffin Bay, and Young Sound (North-East Greenland), supplementing a compilation of 13 published estimates throughout the Arctic Ocean. Combining all flux estimates with a Pan-Arctic database of in situ measurements of nitrate concentration and density, we found the annual nitrate inventory to be largely determined by the strength of stratification and by bathymetry. Nitrate fluxes explained the observed regional patterns and magnitudes of both new primary production and particle export on annual scales. We argue that with few regional exceptions, vertical turbulent nitrate fluxes can be a reliable proxy of Arctic primary production accessible through autonomous and large-scale measurements. They may also provide a framework to assess nutrient limitation scenarios based on clear energetic and mass budget constraints resulting from turbulent mixing and freshwater flows.

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    OceanRep; Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Marine Science
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
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      OceanRep; Frontiers in Marine Science
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Rachel U. Shelley; William M. Landing; Simon J. Ussher; Hélène Planquette; +1 Authors

    Abstract. The fractional solubility of aerosol-derived trace elements deposited to the ocean surface is a key parameter of many marine biogeochemical models. Yet, it is currently poorly constrained, in part due to the complex interplay between the various processes that govern the solubilisation of aerosol trace elements. In this study, we used a sequential two-stage leach to investigate the fractional solubility of a suite of aerosol trace elements (Al, Ti, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) from samples collected during three GEOTRACES cruises to the North Atlantic Ocean. Regardless of the leaching protocol used (mild versus strong leach), the same trends were observed. These were that trace elements from aerosols from 1) North Africa were always the least soluble, and the most homogeneous (e.g. Fe was 0.36 ± 0.12 % and 6.0 ± 1.0 % soluble in North African and 6.5 ± 5.5 % and 17 ± 11 % soluble in non-African aerosols following leaches with ultra-high purity water, and 25 % acetic acid, respectively), 2) aerosols from the most remote locations were generally the most soluble, but had the most spread in the values of fractional solubility and 3) primarily pollution-derived TEs (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were significantly enriched above crustal values in aerosols, even in samples of North African origin. We present aerosol trace element solubility data from two sequential leaches that provides a solubility window, covering a conservative, lower limit to an upper limit, the maximum potentially soluble fraction, and demonstrate why this lower limit of solubility may underestimate aerosol TE solubility in some regions. The leaching technique that yields the upper limit can also be used to estimate trace element solubility from suspended particulate matter (SPM). Therefore, facilitating direct comparison with SPM leached using the same technique, thereby introducing some degree of standardisation between aerosol and SPM trace element solubility studies which may help inform of in-water processes that modify the solubility, and thus bioavailability, of atmospheric particles following deposition to the surface ocean.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
    Preprint . 2017
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-201...
      Preprint . 2017
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    Authors: H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; +49 Authors

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2020
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Cryosphere
    Article . 2020
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2020
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