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    Authors: Theys, Johanna; Tareau, Marc-alexandre; Ansoe-tareau, Clarisse; Greene, Alexander; +3 Authors

    Background: To understand how local ecological knowledge changes and adapts, here in the case of the recent introduction of plant species, we report the knowledge and perceptions of the Ndjuka (Maroon) of French Guiana concerning two tree species, Acacia mangium and niaouli(Melaleuca quinquenervia), which are categorized as “invasive alien plants” in the savannas of their territory. Methods: To this end, semi-structured interviews were conducted between April and July 2022, using a pre-designed questionnaire, plant samples and photographs. The uses, local ecological knowledge, and representations of these species were surveyed among populations of Maroon origin in western French Guiana. All responses to closed questions collected during the field survey were compiled into an Excel spreadsheet in order to perform quantitative analyses, including the calculation of use reports (URs). Results: It appears that the local populations have integrated these two plant species, which are named, used and even traded, into their knowledge systems. On the other hand, neither foreignness nor invasiveness seem to be relevant concepts in the perspective of the informants. The usefulness of these plants is the determining factor of their integration into the Ndjuka medicinal flora, thus resulting in the adaptation of their local ecological knowledge. Conclusion: In addition to highlighting the need for the integration of the discourse of local stakeholders into the management of "invasive alien species”, this study also allows us to observe the forms of adaptation that are set in motion by the arrival of a new species, particularly within populations that are themselves the result of recent migrations. Our results furthermore indicate that such adaptations of local ecological knowledge can occur very quickly.

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    Authors: Álvarez-Blázquez, B. (Blanca);
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    Authors: Martinelli M.; Moroni D.; Salvetti O.;

    We believe that the contribution of volunteers could play a fundamental role in monitoring and protecting the environment. People at sea sighting pollution caused by oil or hydrocarbon spillages can now immediately report this using a freely downloadable mobile application. At the Signals and Images Laboratory (SI-LAB) of the Institute of Information Science and Technology of the National Research Council of Pisa (ISTI-CNR), we have developed a Marine Information System (MIS) for monitoring vessel traffic and oil spills within the Mediterranean basin. The MIS collects and integrates geotagged data related to safety and health issues of the sea from various sources (satellites, optical sensors, electronic noses, autonomous underwater vehicle systems) and provides predictive models to assist the authorities in the management of emergencies at sea. An integrant part of the MIS is represented by the data that can be collected and shared by volunteers who want to collaborate in monitoring the status of the sea. For this purpose, we have developed ARGO Sentinel, a free application for smartphones with a Geolocation System.

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    Article . 2013
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    ISTI Open Portal
    Article . 2013
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    Authors: Vannier, Jean; Vidal, Muriel; Marchant, Robin; El Hariri, Khadija; +5 Authors

    Interactions and coordination between conspecific individuals have produced a remarkable variety of collective behaviours. This co-operation occurs in vertebrate and invertebrate animals and is well expressed in the group flight of birds, fish shoals and highly organized activities of social insects. How individuals interact and why they co-operate to constitute group-level patterns has been extensively studied in extant animals through a variety mechanistic, functional and theoretical approaches. Although collective and social behaviour evolved through natural selection over millions of years, its origin and early history has remained largely unknown. In-situ monospecific linear clusters of trilobite arthropods from the lower Ordovician (ca 480 Ma) of Morocco are interpreted here as resulting either from a collective behaviour triggered by hydrodynamic cues in which mechanical stimulation detected by motion and touch sensors may have played a major role, or from a possible seasonal reproduction behaviour leading to the migration of sexually mature conspecifics to spawning grounds, possibly driven by chemical attraction (e.g. pheromones). This study confirms that collective behaviour has a very ancient origin and probably developed throughout the Cambrian-Ordovician interval, at the same time as the first animal radiation events.

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    Authors: Naafs, B. D. A.; Hefter, J.; Grutzner, J.; Stein, R.;

    During the six Heinrich events of the last 70 kyr, episodic calving from the circum-Atlantic ice sheets released large numbers of icebergs into the North Atlantic. These icebergs and associated meltwater flux are hypothesized to have led to a shutdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and severe cooling in large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, due to the limited availability of high-resolution records, the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) changes related to the impact of Heinrich events on the midlatitude North Atlantic is poorly constrained. Here we present a record of U-37(K)-based SSTs derived from sediments of Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Site U1313, located at the southern end of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) belt in the midlatitude North Atlantic (41 degrees N). We demonstrate that all six Heinrich events are associated with a rapid warming of surface waters by 2-4 degrees C in a few thousand years. The presence of IRD leaves no doubt about the simultaneous timing and correlation between rapid surface water warming and Heinrich events. We argue that this warming in the midlatitude North Atlantic is related to a northward expansion of the subtropical gyre during Heinrich events. As a wide range of studies demonstrated that in the central IRD belt Heinrich events are associated with low SSTs, these results thus identify an antiphased (seesaw) pattern in SSTs during Heinrich events between the midlatitude (warm) and northern North Atlantic (cold). This highlights the complex response of surface water characteristics in the North Atlantic to Heinrich events that is poorly reproduced by freshwater hosing experiments and challenges the widely accepted view that, within the IRD belt of the North Atlantic, Heinrich events coincide with periods of low SSTs.

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  • Authors: Fedele, F; A. Benetazzo, G. Gallego, P.-C. Shih, A. Yezzi, F. Ardhuin and F. Barbariol; Fedele, F., A. Benetazzo, G. Gallego, P.-C. Shih, A. Yezzi, F. Ardhuin; F. Barbariol;
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    Authors: Cueto‐vega, Rosa; Flye‐sainte‐marie, Jonathan; Aguirre‐velarde, Arturo; Jean, Frederic; +2 Authors

    During recent years, mass mortalities of cultured scallops became more frequent in Peruvian bays. One of the main drivers related to these mortalities was hypoxic events. This study was designed to understand the hypoxia phenomenon in these bays and to assess how the Peruvian scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, can cope with reduced oxygen levels in seawater based on individual size. First, we analyzed the relationships between dissolved oxygen saturation and other environmental parameters (the Coastal El Niño Index, temperature, salinity and pH) in bottom seawater, the frequency and intensity of hypoxic events in two main culture areas (Sechura and Paracas Bays), and their relationship with scallop mass mortalities. Then, we performed experiments with two size groups of A. purpuratus (31 and 80 mm shell height; seed and commercial size, respectively) to assess their respective survival time under severe hypoxia (1% oxygen saturation) at 16°C and a salinity of 35. Finally, the results of the field records and the experimental data are used to suggest ways to improve scallop cultivation along the Peruvian coast.

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    Authors: Nielsen, Jørgen G.; Moller, Peter Rask; Segonzac, Michel;

    A new genus and species of ophidiid fishes, Ventichthys biospeedoi, is described based on two male specimens caught in the French BIOSPEEDO expedition to the South East Pacific Rise. They were caught by a baited trap at the hydrothermal vent site Oasis ( 17 degrees 25.38' S, 113 degrees 12.29' W) at 2586 m. The new genus differs from all of the 48 known ophidiid genera by its thick skin, posteriorly placed and enlarged kidneys, broad head, and 4 lateral lines. The most similar genera are Benthocometes and Petrotyx having a blunt snout, one basibranchial tooth patch, granular teeth, and no free pectoral fin rays. Remarks on the ecology of the new species are based on analysis of video documents taken in situ by a submarine Nautile.

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    Authors: Drakou, Evangelia G.; Pendleton, Linwood; Effron, Micah; Ingram, Jane Carter; +1 Authors

    Local, regional, and global policies to manage protect and restore our oceans and coasts call for the inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) in policy-relevant research. Marine and coastal ES and the associated benefits to humans are usually assessed, quantified, and mapped at the ecosystem level to inform policy and decision-making. Yet those benefits may reach humans beyond the provisioning ecosystem, at the regional or even global level. Current efforts to map ES generated by a single ecosystem rarely consider the distribution of benefits beyond the ecosystem itself, especially at the regional or global level. In this article, we elaborate on the concept of "extra-local" ES to refer to those ES generating benefits that are enjoyed far from the providing ecosystem, focusing on the marine environment. We emphasize the spatial dimension of the different components of the ES provision framework and apply the proposed conceptual framework to food provision and climate regulation ES provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. We present the different extents of the mapping outputs generated by the ecosystem-based vs. the extra-local mapping approach and discuss practical and conceptual challenges of the approach. Lack of relevant ES mapping methodologies and lack of data appeared to be the most crucial bottlenecks in applying the extra-local approach for marine and coastal ES. We urge for more applications of the proposed framework that can improve marine and coastal ES assessments help fill in data gaps and generate more robust data. Such assessments could better inform marine and coastal policies, especially those linked to equal attribution of benefits, compensation schemes and poverty alleviation.

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    Authors: Ghekiere, A.;
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    Authors: Theys, Johanna; Tareau, Marc-alexandre; Ansoe-tareau, Clarisse; Greene, Alexander; +3 Authors

    Background: To understand how local ecological knowledge changes and adapts, here in the case of the recent introduction of plant species, we report the knowledge and perceptions of the Ndjuka (Maroon) of French Guiana concerning two tree species, Acacia mangium and niaouli(Melaleuca quinquenervia), which are categorized as “invasive alien plants” in the savannas of their territory. Methods: To this end, semi-structured interviews were conducted between April and July 2022, using a pre-designed questionnaire, plant samples and photographs. The uses, local ecological knowledge, and representations of these species were surveyed among populations of Maroon origin in western French Guiana. All responses to closed questions collected during the field survey were compiled into an Excel spreadsheet in order to perform quantitative analyses, including the calculation of use reports (URs). Results: It appears that the local populations have integrated these two plant species, which are named, used and even traded, into their knowledge systems. On the other hand, neither foreignness nor invasiveness seem to be relevant concepts in the perspective of the informants. The usefulness of these plants is the determining factor of their integration into the Ndjuka medicinal flora, thus resulting in the adaptation of their local ecological knowledge. Conclusion: In addition to highlighting the need for the integration of the discourse of local stakeholders into the management of "invasive alien species”, this study also allows us to observe the forms of adaptation that are set in motion by the arrival of a new species, particularly within populations that are themselves the result of recent migrations. Our results furthermore indicate that such adaptations of local ecological knowledge can occur very quickly.

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    Authors: Álvarez-Blázquez, B. (Blanca);
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    Authors: Martinelli M.; Moroni D.; Salvetti O.;

    We believe that the contribution of volunteers could play a fundamental role in monitoring and protecting the environment. People at sea sighting pollution caused by oil or hydrocarbon spillages can now immediately report this using a freely downloadable mobile application. At the Signals and Images Laboratory (SI-LAB) of the Institute of Information Science and Technology of the National Research Council of Pisa (ISTI-CNR), we have developed a Marine Information System (MIS) for monitoring vessel traffic and oil spills within the Mediterranean basin. The MIS collects and integrates geotagged data related to safety and health issues of the sea from various sources (satellites, optical sensors, electronic noses, autonomous underwater vehicle systems) and provides predictive models to assist the authorities in the management of emergencies at sea. An integrant part of the MIS is represented by the data that can be collected and shared by volunteers who want to collaborate in monitoring the status of the sea. For this purpose, we have developed ARGO Sentinel, a free application for smartphones with a Geolocation System.

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    Article . 2013
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    ISTI Open Portal
    Article . 2013
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    Authors: Vannier, Jean; Vidal, Muriel; Marchant, Robin; El Hariri, Khadija; +5 Authors

    Interactions and coordination between conspecific individuals have produced a remarkable variety of collective behaviours. This co-operation occurs in vertebrate and invertebrate animals and is well expressed in the group flight of birds, fish shoals and highly organized activities of social insects. How individuals interact and why they co-operate to constitute group-level patterns has been extensively studied in extant animals through a variety mechanistic, functional and theoretical approaches. Although collective and social behaviour evolved through natural selection over millions of years, its origin and early history has remained largely unknown. In-situ monospecific linear clusters of trilobite arthropods from the lower Ordovician (ca 480 Ma) of Morocco are interpreted here as resulting either from a collective behaviour triggered by hydrodynamic cues in which mechanical stimulation detected by motion and touch sensors may have played a major role, or from a possible seasonal reproduction behaviour leading to the migration of sexually mature conspecifics to spawning grounds, possibly driven by chemical attraction (e.g. pheromones). This study confirms that collective behaviour has a very ancient origin and probably developed throughout the Cambrian-Ordovician interval, at the same time as the first animal radiation events.

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    Authors: Naafs, B. D. A.; Hefter, J.; Grutzner, J.; Stein, R.;

    During the six Heinrich events of the last 70 kyr, episodic calving from the circum-Atlantic ice sheets released large numbers of icebergs into the North Atlantic. These icebergs and associated meltwater flux are hypothesized to have led to a shutdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and severe cooling in large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, due to the limited availability of high-resolution records, the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) changes related to the impact of Heinrich events on the midlatitude North Atlantic is poorly constrained. Here we present a record of U-37(K)-based SSTs derived from sediments of Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Site U1313, located at the southern end of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) belt in the midlatitude North Atlantic (41 degrees N). We demonstrate that all six Heinrich events are associated with a rapid warming of surface waters by 2-4 degrees C in a few thousand years. The presence of IRD leaves no doubt about the simultaneous timing and correlation between rapid surface water warming and Heinrich events. We argue that this warming in the midlatitude North Atlantic is related to a northward expansion of the subtropical gyre during Heinrich events. As a wide range of studies demonstrated that in the central IRD belt Heinrich events are associated with low SSTs, these results thus identify an antiphased (seesaw) pattern in SSTs during Heinrich events between the midlatitude (warm) and northern North Atlantic (cold). This highlights the complex response of surface water characteristics in the North Atlantic to Heinrich events that is poorly reproduced by freshwater hosing experiments and challenges the widely accepted view that, within the IRD belt of the North Atlantic, Heinrich events coincide with periods of low SSTs.

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  • Authors: Fedele, F; A. Benetazzo, G. Gallego, P.-C. Shih, A. Yezzi, F. Ardhuin and F. Barbariol; Fedele, F., A. Benetazzo, G. Gallego, P.-C. Shih, A. Yezzi, F. Ardhuin; F. Barbariol;
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    Authors: Cueto‐vega, Rosa; Flye‐sainte‐marie, Jonathan; Aguirre‐velarde, Arturo; Jean, Frederic; +2 Authors

    During recent years, mass mortalities of cultured scallops became more frequent in Peruvian bays. One of the main drivers related to these mortalities was hypoxic events. This study was designed to understand the hypoxia phenomenon in these bays and to assess how the Peruvian scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, can cope with reduced oxygen levels in seawater based on individual size. First, we analyzed the relationships between dissolved oxygen saturation and other environmental parameters (the Coastal El Niño Index, temperature, salinity and pH) in bottom seawater, the frequency and intensity of hypoxic events in two main culture areas (Sechura and Paracas Bays), and their relationship with scallop mass mortalities. Then, we performed experiments with two size groups of A. purpuratus (31 and 80 mm shell height; seed and commercial size, respectively) to assess their respective survival time under severe hypoxia (1% oxygen saturation) at 16°C and a salinity of 35. Finally, the results of the field records and the experimental data are used to suggest ways to improve scallop cultivation along the Peruvian coast.

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    Authors: Nielsen, Jørgen G.; Moller, Peter Rask; Segonzac, Michel;

    A new genus and species of ophidiid fishes, Ventichthys biospeedoi, is described based on two male specimens caught in the French BIOSPEEDO expedition to the South East Pacific Rise. They were caught by a baited trap at the hydrothermal vent site Oasis ( 17 degrees 25.38' S, 113 degrees 12.29' W) at 2586 m. The new genus differs from all of the 48 known ophidiid genera by its thick skin, posteriorly placed and enlarged kidneys, broad head, and 4 lateral lines. The most similar genera are Benthocometes and Petrotyx having a blunt snout, one basibranchial tooth patch, granular teeth, and no free pectoral fin rays. Remarks on the ecology of the new species are based on analysis of video documents taken in situ by a submarine Nautile.

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    Authors: Drakou, Evangelia G.; Pendleton, Linwood; Effron, Micah; Ingram, Jane Carter; +1 Authors

    Local, regional, and global policies to manage protect and restore our oceans and coasts call for the inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) in policy-relevant research. Marine and coastal ES and the associated benefits to humans are usually assessed, quantified, and mapped at the ecosystem level to inform policy and decision-making. Yet those benefits may reach humans beyond the provisioning ecosystem, at the regional or even global level. Current efforts to map ES generated by a single ecosystem rarely consider the distribution of benefits beyond the ecosystem itself, especially at the regional or global level. In this article, we elaborate on the concept of "extra-local" ES to refer to those ES generating benefits that are enjoyed far from the providing ecosystem, focusing on the marine environment. We emphasize the spatial dimension of the different components of the ES provision framework and apply the proposed conceptual framework to food provision and climate regulation ES provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. We present the different extents of the mapping outputs generated by the ecosystem-based vs. the extra-local mapping approach and discuss practical and conceptual challenges of the approach. Lack of relevant ES mapping methodologies and lack of data appeared to be the most crucial bottlenecks in applying the extra-local approach for marine and coastal ES. We urge for more applications of the proposed framework that can improve marine and coastal ES assessments help fill in data gaps and generate more robust data. Such assessments could better inform marine and coastal policies, especially those linked to equal attribution of benefits, compensation schemes and poverty alleviation.

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