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    Authors: des Aulnois, Maxime Georges; Réveillon, Damien; Robert, Elise; Caruana, Amandine; +5 Authors

    The transfer of Microcystis aeruginosa from freshwater to estuaries has been described worldwide and salinity is reported as the main factor controlling the expansion of M. aeruginosa to coastal environments. Analyzing the expression levels of targeted genes and employing both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic approaches, this study investigated the effect of a sudden salt increase on the physiological and metabolic responses of two toxic M. aeruginosa strains separately isolated from fresh and brackish waters, respectively, PCC 7820 and 7806. Supported by differences in gene expressions and metabolic profiles, salt tolerance was found to be strain specific. An increase in salinity decreased the growth of M. aeruginosa with a lesser impact on the brackish strain. The production of intracellular microcystin variants in response to salt stress correlated well to the growth rate for both strains. Furthermore, the release of microcystins into the surrounding medium only occurred at the highest salinity treatment when cell lysis occurred. This study suggests that the physiological responses of M. aeruginosa involve the accumulation of common metabolites but that the intraspecific salt tolerance is based on the accumulation of specific metabolites. While one of these was determined to be sucrose, many others remain to be identified. Taken together, these results provide evidence that M. aeruginosa is relatively salt tolerant in the mesohaline zone and microcystin (MC) release only occurs when the capacity of the cells to deal with salt increase is exceeded. Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe; 1130

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    Toxins
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Toxins
    Article . 2020
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    Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam
    Other literature type . Article . 2020
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    Toxins
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    https://doi.org/10.25932/publi...
    Other literature type . 2021
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      Toxins
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      Toxins
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      Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam
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      Toxins
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      https://doi.org/10.25932/publi...
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    Authors: Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra S.; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth;

    In recent decades, the presence of micropollutants in the environment has been extensively studied due to their high frequency of occurrence, persistence and possible adverse effects to exposed organisms. Concerning chiral micropollutants in the environment, enantiomers are frequently ignored and enantiomeric composition often neglected. However, enantioselective toxicity is well recognized, highlighting the need to include enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment. Additionally, the information about enantiomeric fraction (EF) is crucial since it gives insights about: (i) environmental fate (i.e., occurrence, distribution, removal processes and (bio)degradation); (ii) illicit discharges; (iii) consumption pattern (e.g., illicit drugs, pharmaceuticals used as recreational drugs, illicit use of pesticides); and (iv) enantioselective toxicological effects. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review about the enantioselective occurrence of chiral bioactive compounds in aquatic environmental matrices. These include pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic musks (PCMs). Most frequently analytical methods used for separation of enantiomers were liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methodologies using both indirect (enantiomerically pure derivatizing reagents) and direct methods (chiral stationary phases). The occurrence of these chiral micropollutants in the environment is reviewed and future challenges are outlined. © 2017 by the authors. This work was developed at Laboratory of Environmental Research area/Environmental and Applied Chemistry research line of the IINFACTS-CESPU. The authors acknowledge the financial support from PARMADRUGS-CESPU-2014 and ChiralDrugs_CESPU_2017. This research was partially supported through national funds provided by FCT/MCTES: Foundation for Science and Technology from the Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education (PIDDAC) and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE: Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade (POFC) programme, under the Strategic Funding UID/Multi/04423/2013, in the framework of the programme PT2020. ARR and MSM acknowledge Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) for their grants, SFRH/BD/86939/2012 and SFRH/BPD/101703/2014, respectively

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    Symmetry
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Ciência-UCP
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    Symmetry
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    Article . 2017
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    Authors: Marine David; Vincent Bailly-Comte; Dominique Munaron; Annie Fiandrino; +1 Authors

    Near-shore and direct groundwater inputs are frequently omitted from nutrient budgets of coastal lagoons. This study investigated groundwater-driven dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) inputs from an alluvial aquifer to the hypertrophic Or lagoon, with a focus on the Salaison River. Piezometric contours revealed that the Salaison hydrogeological catchment is 42% bigger than the surface watershed and hydraulic gradients suggest significant groundwater discharge all along the stream. Hydrograph separation of the water flow at a gauging station located 3 km upstream from the Or lagoon combined with DIN historical data enabled to estimate that groundwater-driven DIN inputs account for 81–87% of the annual total DIN inputs to the stream upstream from the gauging station. A radon mass balance was performed for the hydrological cycle 2017–2018 to estimate groundwater inflow into the downstream part of the stream. Results showed that (1) DIN fluxes increased by a factor 1.1 to 2.3 between the gauging station and the Salaison outlet, (2) the increase in DIN was due to two groundwater-fed canals and to groundwater discharge along the stream, the latter represented 63–78% of the water flow. This study thus highlights the significance of groundwater driven DIN inputs into the Salaison River, which account for 90% of the annual DIN inputs. This is particularly true in the downstream part of the river, which, on averages, supplies 48% of total DIN inputs to the river. These downstream DIN inputs into the Or lagoon were previously not taken into account in the management of this and other Mediterranean lagoons. The inputs will probably affect restoration processes for many years due to their residence time in the aquifer. This study throws light on a rarely documented source of ‘very-nearshore’ groundwater discharge to coastal streams in water and nutrient budgets of coastal zone ecosystems. International audience

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    The Science of The Total Environment
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Science of The Total Environment
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Helmuth Thomas; Elizabeth H. Shadwick; Frank Dehairs; Bruno Lansard; +11 Authors

    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m‑2 yr‑1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles. International audience

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley TDM
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    Authors: Kühn, M.; Niewöhner, C.; Isenbeck-Schröter, M.; Schulz, H.;

    The common process of low energy geothermal exploitation is the doublet of production- and reinjection borehole. The quality of water reinjected into a elastic reservoir is essential for the reliability of an injection well. In order to estimate precipitation reactions it is necessary to obtain extensive reliable analysis data of the water for the use of thermodynamic modelling. For thermal anoxic brines, the analysis of major and especially minor ion content is difficult because of matrix effects and possible iron precipitation. A selection of analysing methods were applied to two anoxic thermal brines of deep sandstone aquifers of Northern Germany. Detection limits and measured data of the major constituents are presented of Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Fe-total, Mn2+, SiO44-, B(OH)(3), Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, SO42-, SO32-, S2-, PO43-, NO3-, NO2- and DOC. The measurements were done with ICP-OES, ionselective electrodes, photometry, polarography, titration methods, ion chromatography and TOC-analyzer. Except for SO(4)(2-)and Cl-, the anion analysis was done on-site, since the high iron content in the anoxic water requires acidification in order to prevent iron hydroxide precipitation. The minor constituents Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Sc3+, Co2+, Y3+, La3+, Ce3+, Al3+, were enriched by trace matrix separation using the cation exchange resin Chelex((R))100. The element concentrations in the acidic eluates of the Chelex((R))100 columns were measured using ICP-MS. The pH dependency of the exchange equilibrium at pH values of 4, 5 and 6 (buffered and unbuffered) as well as the relation to the salt content between 35 and 250 gl(-1) total dissolved solids of Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 were evaluated by sensitivity analysis.

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    Water Research
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Water Research
      Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bruno Lansard; Christophe Rabouille; Lionel Denis; Christian Grenz;

    The influence of riverine inputs on biogeochemical cycling and organic matter recycling in sediments on the continental shelf off the Rhone River mouth (NW Mediterranean Sea) was investigated by measuring sediment oxygen uptake rates using a combination of in situ and laboratory techniques. Four stations were investigated during two cruises in June 2001 and June 2002, with depths ranging from 9 to 192 m and over a distance to the Rhone River mouth ranging from 4 to 36 km. Diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) rates were determined using an in situ sediment microprofiler and total oxygen uptake (TOU) rates were measured using sediment core incubations. There was good agreement between these two techniques which indicates that the non-diffusive fraction of the oxygen flux was minimal at the investigated stations. DOU rates ranged from 3.7 +/- 0.4 mmol O-2 m(-2) d(-1) at the continental shelf break to 19.3 +/- 0.5 mmol O-2 m(-2) d(-1) in front of the Rhone River mouth. Sediment oxygen uptake rates mostly decreased with increasing depth and with distance from the Rhone mouth. The highest oxygen uptake rate was observed at 63 m on the Rhone prodelta, corresponding to intense remineralization of organic matter. This oxygen uptake rate was much larger than expected for the increasing bathymetry, which indicates that biogeochemical cycles and benthic deposition are largely influenced by the Rhone River inputs. This functioning was also supported by the detailed spatial distribution of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and C/N atomic ratio in surficial sediments. Sediments of the Rhone prodelta are enriched in organic carbon (2-2.2%) relative to the continental shelf sediments (< 1%) and showed C/N ratios exceeding Redfield stoichiometry for fresh marine organic matter. A positive exponential correlation was found between DOU and TOC contents (r(2) = 0.98, n = 4). South-westward of the Rhone River mouth, sediments contained highly degraded organic matter of both terrestrial and marine origin, due to direct inputs from the Rhone River, sedimentation of marine organic matter and organic material redeposition after resuspension events. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2008
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    Continental Shelf Research
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Nima Pahlevan; Sandeep K. Chittimalli; Sundarabalan V. Balasubramanian; Vincenzo Vellucci;

    International audience; Sentinel-2 and Landsat data products when combined open opportunities for capturing the dynamics of nearshore coastal and inland waters at rates that have never been possible before. Recognizing the differences in their spectral and spatial sampling, to generate a seamless data record for global water quality monitoring, it is critical to quantify how well the derived data products agree under various atmospheric and aquatic conditions. This study provides an extensive quantitative assessment of how Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A/B equivalent data products compare and discusses implications on differences in downstream products generated via the SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS). These products include the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance (ρ t), the remote-sensing reflectance (R rs), as well as biogeochemical properties, such as the total suspended solids (TSS). The analyses are conducted a) for Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A/B near-simultaneous nadir overpasses (n-SNO) and b) over several highly turbid/eutrophic inland/nearshore waters. Following the implementation of vicarious gains for Sentinel-2A, the n-SNO analyses indicated that Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A agree within ± 1% in ρ t and ± 5% in R rs products across the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Similar evaluations with preliminary vicarious gains for Sentinel-2B showed ± 2% in ρ t and ± 7% in R rs products. Considering Landsat-8-derived R rs products as a reference, we found < 5% difference in Sentinel-2A and-2B R rs products. Analyses of combined TSS and R rs time-series products over several aquatic systems further corroborated these results and demonstrated the remarkable value of combined products. Occasional negative retrievals of R rs products over hypereutrophic and highly turbid waters suggest the need for improvements in the atmospheric correction procedure to empower science/application community to fully explore Landsat-Sentinel-2 products. With very similar absolute radiometric observations and products, the science community should consider developments of suitable biogeochemical algorithms to maximize the utility of merged Landsat-Sentinel-2 products.

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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: , Culik; , Wilson; , Bannasch;

    ABSTRACT Energetic requirements of under-water swimming in pygoscelid penguins were studied in Antarctica, using respirometry together with a 21 m long swim canal and externally attached devices recording the swimming speed and dive duration of unrestrained animals. Field measurements were compared with measurements of the hydrodynamic properties of an Adélie penguin model in a circulating water tank. Minimium transport costs during underwater swimming in Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (P. antarctica) and gentoo (P. papua) penguins averaged 4.9, 3.7 and 7.6 J kg−1 m−1, respectively, at their preferred swimming speeds of 2.2, 2.4 and 1.8 m s−1, allowing the birds to dive aerobically for 110, 130 and 93 s, respectively. From the swim canal measurements, we calculated a drag coefficient (CD) of 0.0368 for a typical Adélie penguin at 2.2 m s−1. This value is significantly lower than the CDof 0.04 of an ideal spindle and the CD of 0.0496 measured on the model in the laboratory. The reasons for this difference are discussed.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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      OceanRep
      Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: OceanRep
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    Authors: Yama Tomonaga; Matthias S. Brennwald; David M. Livingstone; Olga Kwiecien; +9 Authors

    In closed-basin lakes, sediment porewater salinity can potentially be used as a conservative tracer to reconstruct past fluctuations in lake level. However, until now, porewater salinity profiles did not allow quantitative estimates of past lake-level changes because, in contrast to the oceans, significant salinity changes (e.g., local concentration minima and maxima) had never been observed in lacustrine sediments. Here we show that the salinity measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Van (Turkey) allows straightforward reconstruction of two major transgressions and a major regression that occurred during the last 250 ka. We observed strong changes in the vertical salinity profiles of the pore water of the uppermost 100 m of the sediments in Lake Van. As the salinity balance of Lake Van is almost at steady-state, these salinity changes indicate major lake-level changes in the past. In line with previous studies on lake terraces and with seismic and sedimentological surveys, we identify two major transgressions of up to + 105 m with respect to the current lake level at about 135 ka BP and 248 ka BP starting at the onset of the two previous interglacials (MIS5e and MIS7), and a major regression of about -200 m at about 30 ka BP during the last ice age. Scientific Reports, 7 ISSN:2045-2322

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    Aperta - TÜBİTAK Açık Arşivi
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Research Collection
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    Authors: Lacombe, Marielle; Garcon, Veronique; Thouron, Daniele; Le Bris, Nadine; +1 Authors

    From the study of molybdenum oxidation in aqueous solutions we developed a semi-autonomous method to detect silicate in aqueous samples. Molybdenum oxidation was used to form molybdate in acidic media. The silicomolybdic complex formed with silicate is detectable by amperometry or cyclic voltammetry. The new electrochemical method is in good agreement with the method conventionally used for environmental water silicate analysis. In the second stage, a completely reagentless method was developed using molybdate and proton produced during molybdenum oxidation. Reproducibility tests show a precision of 2.6% for a concentration of 100 [mu]mol L-1. This new method will be very suitable for the development of new autonomous silicate sensors easy to handle and without reagents. In this paper we present the analytical and chemical aspects necessary for a complete documentation of the method before the development of a new reagentless sensor. International audience

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    Authors: des Aulnois, Maxime Georges; Réveillon, Damien; Robert, Elise; Caruana, Amandine; +5 Authors

    The transfer of Microcystis aeruginosa from freshwater to estuaries has been described worldwide and salinity is reported as the main factor controlling the expansion of M. aeruginosa to coastal environments. Analyzing the expression levels of targeted genes and employing both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic approaches, this study investigated the effect of a sudden salt increase on the physiological and metabolic responses of two toxic M. aeruginosa strains separately isolated from fresh and brackish waters, respectively, PCC 7820 and 7806. Supported by differences in gene expressions and metabolic profiles, salt tolerance was found to be strain specific. An increase in salinity decreased the growth of M. aeruginosa with a lesser impact on the brackish strain. The production of intracellular microcystin variants in response to salt stress correlated well to the growth rate for both strains. Furthermore, the release of microcystins into the surrounding medium only occurred at the highest salinity treatment when cell lysis occurred. This study suggests that the physiological responses of M. aeruginosa involve the accumulation of common metabolites but that the intraspecific salt tolerance is based on the accumulation of specific metabolites. While one of these was determined to be sucrose, many others remain to be identified. Taken together, these results provide evidence that M. aeruginosa is relatively salt tolerant in the mesohaline zone and microcystin (MC) release only occurs when the capacity of the cells to deal with salt increase is exceeded. Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe; 1130

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    Toxins
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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