The link between anthropogenic nutrient loads and the magnitude and extent of diatom and Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern Bight of the North Sea was explored with the complex ecosystem model MIRO. The model was adapted for resolving the changing nutrient loads, the complex biology of the bloom species and the tight coupling between the benthic and pelagic compartments that characterise this shallow coastal shelf sea ecosystem. State variables included the main inorganic nutrients (nitrate [NO3], ammonium [NH 4], phosphate [PO4] and dissolved silica [DSi]), 3 groups of phytoplankton with different trophic fates (diatoms, nanophytoflagellates and Phaeocystis colonies), 2 zooplankton groups (copepods and microzooplankton), bacteria, and 5 classes of detrital organic matter with different biodegradability. The capability of the MIRO model to properly simulate the observed SW-NE gradient in nutrient enrichment and the seasonal cycle of inorganic and organic C and nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria and zooplankton in the eastern English Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea is demonstrated by running the model for the period from 1989 to 1999. The MIRO code was implemented in a simplified multi-box representation of the hydrodynamic regime. These model runs give the first general view of the seasonal dynamics of Phaeocystis colony blooms and nutrient cycling within the domain. C, N and P budget calculations show that (1) the coastal ecosystem has a low nutrient retention and elimination capacity, (2) trophic efficiency of the planktonic system is low, and (3) both are modulated by meteorological forcing.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Other literature type 2019 France French
Authors: Ifremer. Système d'Informations Halieutiques;
Ifremer. Système d'Informations Halieutiques;
Ce document est réalisé dans le cadre du projet « Système d’Informations Halieutiques » (SIH) de l’Ifremer, qui constitue le réseau d’observation des ressources halieutiques et des usages associés. Ce projet s’inscrit dans la mission de service d’intérêt public de l’Ifremer consistant à « connaître, évaluer et mettre en valeur les ressources des océans et permettre leur exploitation durable ». Outre la collecte des données pertinentes permettant l’analyse du secteur des pêches, le SIH a en charge l’élaboration d’indicateurs sur les flottilles de pêche et leur restitution sous forme de synthèses aux différents acteurs de la filière pêche et du grand public.
Heute leben 5,5 Mrd. Menschen auf der Welt, im Jahr 1800 waren es erst 1 Mrd. Die durchschnittliche Kindersterblichkeit ist von 129 im Jahr 1955 auf heute 58 pro 1.000 Lebendgeburten gesunken (UNDP, 1997). 1850 lag die mittlere Lebenserwartung in Europa noch unter 50% der heutigen (Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevolkerung, 1998).
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Article 2016 Germany, United States, France, United Kingdom, Spain Elsevier BV
Authors: Graeme C. Hays; Luciana C. Ferreira; Ana M. M. Sequeira; Mark G. Meekan; +36 Authors
Graeme C. Hays; Luciana C. Ferreira; Ana M. M. Sequeira; Mark G. Meekan; Carlos M. Duarte; Helen Bailey; Fred Bailleul; W. Don Bowen; M. Julian Caley; Daniel P. Costa; Víctor M. Eguíluz; Sabrina Fossette; Ari S. Friedlaender; Nick Gales; Adrian C. Gleiss; John Gunn; Robert Harcourt; Elliott L. Hazen; Michael R. Heithaus; Michelle R. Heupel; Kim N. Holland; Markus Horning; Ian D. Jonsen; Gerald L. Kooyman; Christopher G. Lowe; Peter T. Madsen; Helene Marsh; Richard A. Phillips; David Righton; Yan Ropert-Coudert; Katsufumi Sato; Scott A. Shaffer; Colin A. Simpfendorfer; David W. Sims; Gregory B. Skomal; Akinori Takahashi; Philip N. Trathan; Martin Wikelski; Jamie N. Womble; Michele Thums;
It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Workshop funding was granted to M.T., A.M.M.S., and C.M.D. by the UWA Oceans Institute, the Australian Institute of Marine Science, and the Office of Sponsored Research at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Hays, Graeme C. et al. Peer reviewed
Background: To understand how local ecological knowledge changes and adapts, here in the case of the recent introduction of plant species, we report the knowledge and perceptions of the Ndjuka (Maroon) of French Guiana concerning two tree species, Acacia mangium and niaouli(Melaleuca quinquenervia), which are categorized as “invasive alien plants” in the savannas of their territory. Methods: To this end, semi-structured interviews were conducted between April and July 2022, using a pre-designed questionnaire, plant samples and photographs. The uses, local ecological knowledge, and representations of these species were surveyed among populations of Maroon origin in western French Guiana. All responses to closed questions collected during the field survey were compiled into an Excel spreadsheet in order to perform quantitative analyses, including the calculation of use reports (URs). Results: It appears that the local populations have integrated these two plant species, which are named, used and even traded, into their knowledge systems. On the other hand, neither foreignness nor invasiveness seem to be relevant concepts in the perspective of the informants. The usefulness of these plants is the determining factor of their integration into the Ndjuka medicinal flora, thus resulting in the adaptation of their local ecological knowledge. Conclusion: In addition to highlighting the need for the integration of the discourse of local stakeholders into the management of "invasive alien species”, this study also allows us to observe the forms of adaptation that are set in motion by the arrival of a new species, particularly within populations that are themselves the result of recent migrations. Our results furthermore indicate that such adaptations of local ecological knowledge can occur very quickly.
The ‘temperate’ reef coral Coscinaraea marshae Wells, 1962, is reported from Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia), a near-equatorial locality, 3375 km away from its northernmost range limit in Western Australia, where it is considered a high-latitude endemic. This tropical record suggests that the latitudinal distributions of poorly recorded reef corals may not yet be fully understood, which might be relevant in the light of progressing seawater warming.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Article 2005 English
Authors: Bossuyt, B.; De Fré, B.; Hoffmann, M.;
Bossuyt, B.; De Fré, B.; Hoffmann, M.;
1Associational resistance is a grazing avoidance mechanism resulting from herbivores being less inclined to eat palatable plant species when these species grow in association with unpalatable species. Such facilitative interactions between plant species may have important consequences for patterns of relative abundance and reproduction in plant communities.2We studied the relationship between abundance and flowering success of palatable species and the cover of three unpalatable species (Senecio jacobaea, Iris pseudacorus and Lysimachia vulgaris) in a grassland where moderately intense grazing (0.17–0.42 grazers ha-1) had been ongoing for 3 years. Plots were selected so that there were no systematic differences in microenvironmental conditions associated with the level of cover of unpalatable species.3Several palatable species had a higher frequency, cover and/or flowering success when they grew in the neighbourhood of an unpalatable species.4Several species (both palatable and unpalatable) were significantly taller in the vicinity of a large unpalatable species, probably due to the combined effects of grazing avoidance and increased light competition.5These facilitative effects, however, have not yet resulted in a higher local species richness or plant community evenness. It is nevertheless likely that more pronounced effects will be seen if grazing is continued, because facilitative interactions between plant species induced by grazing have already led to a shift in patterns of abundance and flowering success.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Other literature type 1997 France French Actes Journées Conchylicoles, Ifremer Nantes, 18-19 mars 1997
Authors: Prou, Jean; Heral, Maurice;
Prou, Jean; Heral, Maurice;
Les systèmes d'informations géographiques (SIG) permettent de regrouper des données spatialisées de natures diverses (bases données, résultats de modèles ...). Le recoupement de ces données permet de créer des indices de productivité. Geographical information systems collect and integrate geographically referenced data of diverse nature (database, model results, etc.). Comparing information from different sources can help formulate productivity indexes.
It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic diversity and abundance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-clinical settings has been underestimated and that the environment plays an integral role in enabling the development of AMR. Due to specific demographic and environmental factors the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region may be particularly susceptible to the threat of AMR, with the marine and aquatic environment potentially playing a specific role in its development and propagation. The demographic factors include rapid population growth, significant international population movements, heavy antibiotic use and insufficient antibiotic stewardship. Environmental factors leading to susceptibility include notable inputs of untreated sewage effluent, high ambient water temperatures, elevated concentrations of heavy metals, and poorly regulated use of antimicrobials in veterinary settings. However, to date there is only a limited understanding of the role that this environment plays in enabling the emergence and propagation AMR in this region. This article provides an overview of the risk associated with AMR in the marine and aquatic environment in the GCC region and proposes a framework for understanding how such environments interact with the wider development and propagation of resistance. It identifies priority actions aligned with the World Health Organisation AMR Global Action Plan and associated national action plans to evaluate the role of marine and aquatic systems relative to the wider factors driving AMR emergence and propagation. The proposed framework and actions to evaluate the role of marine and aquatic environments in driving propagation and emergence of AMR are equally applicable at the regional and national level beyond the GCC. Keywords: AMR, Bacteria, GCC, Emergence, Marine pollution
Undersea volcanoes found at about 80 km southeast of the island of Pitcairn, are believed to be the manifestation of a hot-spot activity located near 129°30′W 25°10′S, along the strike of the Mururoa-Gambier-Pitcairn volcanic alignment. Hydrothermal activities and recent volcanic flows were observed on the two largest (20 km in basal diameter) and shallowest (60 m and 450 m depth) volcanoes. More than twenty other smaller volcanic edifices ( 0.25) made up of ancient MORB-type tholeiitic rocks are inferred to be inherited from the EPR axial regions. The shallow volcanic activity which occurred on the two largest edifices are classified as: (1) reactive eruptions, with hydromagmatic activities, giving rise to volcanic ejecta, bombs, xenoliths, and ash, and (2) quiet eruptions which formed pillows and/or lobated lavas, and large massive flows. Intrusives (dyke and sill) were observed, cutting through the volcanic ejecta near the summit ( < 500 m depth) of the seamounts. The general structural orientations of the rift zones recognized from the bathymetry of individual volcanoes (N160°–180°, N80°, N30° and N120°) are comparable to those observed in the Society and Austral hot-spot regions. These orientations were inferred as corresponding to the structural discontinuities of the ancient oceanic crust, and to the regional stress field of the Pacific plate. Rock samples from the Pitcairn region consist of alkali-basalts, basanites, trachyandesites, and trachytes which are closer in chemical composition to some of the volcanics from the Society rather than to those from the Austral hot-spot regions.
Phytoplankton assemblages were studied to characterize the trophic status of the semienclosed Vlora Bay (Albania) and to evaluate the influence of terrestrial inputs on its pelagic ecosystem. The study was carried out as part of the European Project CISM (INTERREG IIIA Italy–Albania) and conducted during two oceanographic cruises (spring 2007, winter 2008). The size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentrations, primary production rates, and the chemotaxonomic composition (high-performance liquid chromatography) of the phytoplankton assemblages were measured. The spatial variability of primary production rates and chlorophyll a concentrations both showed a pronounced E-W gradient in the surface layer, with the highest values along the eastern coast. In spring, a deep chlorophyll maximum was observed in the central western part of the bay, whereas in winter a homogeneous vertical distribution was observed. The phytoplankton assemblages were quite similar in both seasons and were dominated by the picophytoplankton fraction (<46% and 53% in spring and in winter, respectively). Haptophytes and pelagophytes were the major phytoplankton groups, and accounted, respectively, for 50% and 15% in spring, and 40% and 25% in winter. The results showed that Vlora Bay was characterized by generally oligotrophic conditions and that the influence of the southern Adriatic open waters was negligible. The trophic characteristics of the pelagic ecosystem of the bay were essentially driven by terrestrial inputs.
To assess the effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative CCA (a pressure-impregnated solution of copper, chromium, and arsenic compounds) on nontarget epibiota, fouling community development was investigated. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24, and 48 kg CCA per m3 of wood (covering the range of retentions recommended for marine use) plus untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK; La Tremblade [two sites], France; Ria Formosa, Portugal; Sagres, Portugal; Kristineberg, Sweden; Athens, Greece). The fouling community on the surfaces of the panels was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively after 6, 12, and 18 months of exposure. Multivariate statistical methods were used to compare community structure between panel treatments. Panels treated to the three CCA loadings supported very similar fouling assemblages, which in most cases had higher numbers of taxa and individuals than assemblages on untreated panels. No detrimental effects on epibiota due to CCA preservatives were detected at any of the treatment levels at all seven exposure sites, suggesting that the range of environmental conditions at the sites had no bearing on preservative impact on fouling biota. Differences in community structure between CCA-treated and untreated panels may be due to enhanced larval settlement on CCA-treated timber by some species as a result of modifications to the surface properties of the timber by the preservative. Possible reasons for the higher numbers of certain species on the surface of CCA-treated panels are discussed.
The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction (p = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01–1.03, I2 = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01–1.07, I2 = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00–1.04, I2 = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02–1.04, I2 = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Article 2013 Italy English ERCIM., Le Chesnay EC | ARGOMARINE
Authors: Martinelli M.; Moroni D.; Salvetti O.;
Martinelli M.; Moroni D.; Salvetti O.;
We believe that the contribution of volunteers could play a fundamental role in monitoring and protecting the environment. People at sea sighting pollution caused by oil or hydrocarbon spillages can now immediately report this using a freely downloadable mobile application. At the Signals and Images Laboratory (SI-LAB) of the Institute of Information Science and Technology of the National Research Council of Pisa (ISTI-CNR), we have developed a Marine Information System (MIS) for monitoring vessel traffic and oil spills within the Mediterranean basin. The MIS collects and integrates geotagged data related to safety and health issues of the sea from various sources (satellites, optical sensors, electronic noses, autonomous underwater vehicle systems) and provides predictive models to assist the authorities in the management of emergencies at sea. An integrant part of the MIS is represented by the data that can be collected and shared by volunteers who want to collaborate in monitoring the status of the sea. For this purpose, we have developed ARGO Sentinel, a free application for smartphones with a Geolocation System.