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27 Research products, page 1 of 3

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fox, Alan D.; Lea-Anne Henry; Corne, David W.; J. Murray Roberts;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760), UKRI | Where did all the CO2 go?... (NE/J021121/1), UKRI | Advanced environmental mo... (NE/M007235/1)

    International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and larval behaviour. Trajectories of Lophelia pertusa larvae were strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant pattern of interannual atmospheric circulation variability over the northeast Atlantic. Variability in trajectories significantly altered network connectivity and source-sink dynamics, with positive phase NAO conditions producing a well-connected but asymmetrical network connected from west to east. Negative phase NAO produced reduced connectivity, but notably some larvae tracked westward-flowing currents towards coral populations on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Graph theoretical metrics demonstrate critical roles played by seamounts and offshore banks in larval supply and maintaining connectivity across the network. Larval longevity and behaviour mediated dispersal and connectivity, with shorter lived and passive larvae associated with reduced connectivity. We conclude that the existing MPA network is vulnerable to atmospheric-driven changes in ocean circulation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Foster, Laura C; Schmidt, Daniela N; Thomas, Ellen; Arndt, Sandra; Ridgwell, Andy;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ELISA (226716), UKRI | Past records of ocean aci... (NE/F017383/1), NSF | Collaborative Research: R... (0902959)

    Predicting the impact of ongoing anthropogenic CO2 emissions on calcifying marine organisms is complex, owing to the synergy between direct changes (acidification) and indirect changes through climate change (e.g., warming, changes in ocean circulation, and deoxygenation). Laboratory experiments, particularly on longer-lived organisms, tend to be too short to reveal the potential of organisms to acclimatize, adapt, or evolve and usually do not incorporate multiple stressors. We studied two examples of rapid carbon release in the geological record, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (~53.2 Ma) and the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55.5 Ma), the best analogs over the last 65 Ma for future ocean acidification related to high atmospheric CO2 levels. We use benthic foraminifers, which suffered severe extinction during the PETM, as a model group. Using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy, we reconstruct the calcification response of survivor species and find, contrary to expectations, that calcification significantly increased during the PETM. In contrast, there was no significant response to the smaller Eocene Thermal Maximum 2, which was associated with a minor change in diversity only. These observations suggest that there is a response threshold for extinction and calcification response, while highlighting the utility of the geological record in helping constrain the sensitivity of biotic response to environmental change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roberts, Jenny; Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Peck, Victoria L; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Hodell, David A;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | The bi-polar seesaw and C... (NE/J010545/1), EC | NEWLOG (267931), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    Explanations of the glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a "chemical divide" between intermediate and deep water in the glacial Atlantic Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/Ca-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected d18O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South Atlantic water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22-2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer d13C and foraminifer/coral 14C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South Atlantic lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial period. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hunter, William Ross; Jamieson, Alan J; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Witte, Ursula;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | Doctoral Training Grant (... (NE/G523904/1), EC | CODEMAP (258482), EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    The Whittard canyon is a branching submarine canyon on the Celtic continental margin, which may act as a conduit for sediment and organic matter (OM) transport from the European continental slope to the abyssal sea floor. In situ stable-isotope labelling experiments (JC36-042-Spre01; JC36-100-Spre01) were conducted in the eastern and western branches of the Whittard canyon testing short term (3 - 7 day) responses of sediment communities to deposition of nitrogen-rich marine and nitrogen-poor terrigenous phytodetritus. Isotopic labels were traced into faunal biomass and bulk sediments, and the bacterial polar lipid fatty acids (PLFAs). These data files provide the data on macrofaunal and bacterial uptake of the isotopically-labelled organic carbon and nitrogen, and macrofaunal community composition at the two stations within the Whittard canyon

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384), UKRI | What factors control cocc... (NE/F015054/1), UKRI | A Carbon and transient tr... (NE/F01242X/1)

    Although coccolithophores are not as numerically common or as diverse in the Southern Ocean as they are in subpolar waters of the North Atlantic, a few species, such as Emiliania huxleyi, are found during the summer months. Little is actually known about the calcite production (CP) of these communities or how their distribution and physiology relate to environmental variables in this region. In February 2009, we made observations across Drake Passage (between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula) of coccolithophore distribution, CP, primary production, chlorophyll a and macronutrient concentrations, irradiance and carbonate chemistry. Although CP represented less than 1 % of total carbon fixation, coccolithophores were widespread across Drake Passage. The B/C morphotype of E. huxleyi was the dominant coccolithophore, with low estimates of coccolith calcite (~0.01 pmol C coccolith-1) from biometric measurements. Both cell-normalised calcification (0.01-0.16 pmol C cell-1 d-1) and total CP (< 20 µmol C m-3 d-1) were much lower than those observed in the subpolar North Atlantic where E. huxleyi morphotype A is dominant. However, estimates of coccolith production rates were similar (0.1 1.2 coccoliths cell-1 h-1) to previous measurements made in the subpolar North Atlantic. A multivariate statistical approach found that temperature and irradiance together were best able to explain the observed variation in species distribution and abundance (Spearman's rank correlation p = 0.4, p < 0.01). Rates of calcification per cell and coccolith production, as well as community CP and E. huxleyi abundance, were all positively correlated (p < 0.05) to the strong latitudinal gradient in temperature, irradiance and calcite saturation states across Drake Passage. Broadly, our results lend support to recent suggestions that coccolithophores, especially E. huxleyi, are advancing polewards. However, our in situ observations indicate that this may owe more to sea-surface warming and increasing irradiance rather than increasing CO2 concentrations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Suggett, David J; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Boatman, Toby G; Payton, Ross; Pettay, D Tye; Johnson, Vivienne R; Warner, Mark E; Lawson, Tracy;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | A community metabolism ap... (NE/G020116/1), NSF | Collaborative Research - ... (1040940), EC | MEDSEA (265103)

    Increased seawater pCO2, and in turn 'ocean acidification' (OA), is predicted to profoundly impact marine ecosystem diversity and function this century. Much research has already focussed on calcifying reef-forming corals (Class: Anthozoa) that appear particularly susceptible to OA via reduced net calcification. However, here we show that OA-like conditions can simultaneously enhance the ecological success of non-calcifying anthozoans, which not only play key ecological and biogeochemical roles in present day benthic ecosystems but also represent a model organism should calcifying anthozoans exist as less calcified (soft-bodied) forms in future oceans. Increased growth (abundance and size) of the sea anemone (Anemonia viridis) population was observed along a natural CO2 gradient at Vulcano, Italy. Both gross photosynthesis (PG) and respiration (R) increased with pCO2 indicating that the increased growth was, at least in part, fuelled by bottom up (CO2 stimulation) of metabolism. The increase of PG outweighed that of R and the genetic identity of the symbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.) remained unchanged (type A19) suggesting proximity to the vent site relieved CO2 limitation of the anemones' symbiotic microalgal population. Our observations of enhanced productivity with pCO2, which are consistent with previous reports for some calcifying corals, convey an increase in fitness that may enable non-calcifying anthozoans to thrive in future environments, i.e. higher seawater pCO2. Understanding how CO2-enhanced productivity of non- (and less-) calcifying anthozoans applies more widely to tropical ecosystems is a priority where such organisms can dominate benthic ecosystems, in particular following localized anthropogenic stress.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    McCollin, Duncan;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany

    Long-term ecological data are essential for conservation and to monitor and evaluate the effects of environmental change. Bird populations have been routinely assessed on islands off the British coast for many years and here long term data for one such island, Skokholm, is evaluated for robustness in the light of some 20 changes in observers (wardens) on the island over nearly eight decades. It was found that the dataset was robust when compared to bootstrap data with no species showing significant changes in abundance in years when wardens changed. It is concluded that the breeding bird populations on Skokholm and other British offshore islands are an important scientific resource and that protocols should be enacted to ensure the archiving of records, the continuance of data collection using standardised protocols into the future, and the recognition of such long-term data for science in terms of an appropriate conservation designation.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bohoyo, Fernando; Larter, R. D.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Leat, P.T.; Maldonado, A.; Tate, A.J.; Gowland, E.J.; Arndt, Jan Erik; Dorschel, Boris; Kim, Y.D.; +8 more
    Publisher: British Antarctic Survey
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom
  • Other research product . Other ORP type
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hilling, Andrew;
    Country: United Kingdom

    The annual IoP Photography Symposium 2014 focussed around professional photographic contexts. A range of emerging and internationally significant speakers were invited to present talks as well as conduct portfolio review with final year undergraduate students.

search
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
27 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fox, Alan D.; Lea-Anne Henry; Corne, David W.; J. Murray Roberts;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760), UKRI | Where did all the CO2 go?... (NE/J021121/1), UKRI | Advanced environmental mo... (NE/M007235/1)

    International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and larval behaviour. Trajectories of Lophelia pertusa larvae were strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant pattern of interannual atmospheric circulation variability over the northeast Atlantic. Variability in trajectories significantly altered network connectivity and source-sink dynamics, with positive phase NAO conditions producing a well-connected but asymmetrical network connected from west to east. Negative phase NAO produced reduced connectivity, but notably some larvae tracked westward-flowing currents towards coral populations on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Graph theoretical metrics demonstrate critical roles played by seamounts and offshore banks in larval supply and maintaining connectivity across the network. Larval longevity and behaviour mediated dispersal and connectivity, with shorter lived and passive larvae associated with reduced connectivity. We conclude that the existing MPA network is vulnerable to atmospheric-driven changes in ocean circulation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Foster, Laura C; Schmidt, Daniela N; Thomas, Ellen; Arndt, Sandra; Ridgwell, Andy;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ELISA (226716), UKRI | Past records of ocean aci... (NE/F017383/1), NSF | Collaborative Research: R... (0902959)

    Predicting the impact of ongoing anthropogenic CO2 emissions on calcifying marine organisms is complex, owing to the synergy between direct changes (acidification) and indirect changes through climate change (e.g., warming, changes in ocean circulation, and deoxygenation). Laboratory experiments, particularly on longer-lived organisms, tend to be too short to reveal the potential of organisms to acclimatize, adapt, or evolve and usually do not incorporate multiple stressors. We studied two examples of rapid carbon release in the geological record, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (~53.2 Ma) and the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55.5 Ma), the best analogs over the last 65 Ma for future ocean acidification related to high atmospheric CO2 levels. We use benthic foraminifers, which suffered severe extinction during the PETM, as a model group. Using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy, we reconstruct the calcification response of survivor species and find, contrary to expectations, that calcification significantly increased during the PETM. In contrast, there was no significant response to the smaller Eocene Thermal Maximum 2, which was associated with a minor change in diversity only. These observations suggest that there is a response threshold for extinction and calcification response, while highlighting the utility of the geological record in helping constrain the sensitivity of biotic response to environmental change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roberts, Jenny; Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Peck, Victoria L; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Hodell, David A;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | The bi-polar seesaw and C... (NE/J010545/1), EC | NEWLOG (267931), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    Explanations of the glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a "chemical divide" between intermediate and deep water in the glacial Atlantic Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/Ca-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected d18O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South Atlantic water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22-2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer d13C and foraminifer/coral 14C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South Atlantic lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial period. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hunter, William Ross; Jamieson, Alan J; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Witte, Ursula;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | Doctoral Training Grant (... (NE/G523904/1), EC | CODEMAP (258482), EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    The Whittard canyon is a branching submarine canyon on the Celtic continental margin, which may act as a conduit for sediment and organic matter (OM) transport from the European continental slope to the abyssal sea floor. In situ stable-isotope labelling experiments (JC36-042-Spre01; JC36-100-Spre01) were conducted in the eastern and western branches of the Whittard canyon testing short term (3 - 7 day) responses of sediment communities to deposition of nitrogen-rich marine and nitrogen-poor terrigenous phytodetritus. Isotopic labels were traced into faunal biomass and bulk sediments, and the bacterial polar lipid fatty acids (PLFAs). These data files provide the data on macrofaunal and bacterial uptake of the isotopically-labelled organic carbon and nitrogen, and macrofaunal community composition at the two stations within the Whittard canyon

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384), UKRI | What factors control cocc... (NE/F015054/1), UKRI | A Carbon and transient tr... (NE/F01242X/1)

    Although coccolithophores are not as numerically common or as diverse in the Southern Ocean as they are in subpolar waters of the North Atlantic, a few species, such as Emiliania huxleyi, are found during the summer months. Little is actually known about the calcite production (CP) of these communities or how their distribution and physiology relate to environmental variables in this region. In February 2009, we made observations across Drake Passage (between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula) of coccolithophore distribution, CP, primary production, chlorophyll a and macronutrient concentrations, irradiance and carbonate chemistry. Although CP represented less than 1 % of total carbon fixation, coccolithophores were widespread across Drake Passage. The B/C morphotype of E. huxleyi was the dominant coccolithophore, with low estimates of coccolith calcite (~0.01 pmol C coccolith-1) from biometric measurements. Both cell-normalised calcification (0.01-0.16 pmol C cell-1 d-1) and total CP (< 20 µmol C m-3 d-1) were much lower than those observed in the subpolar North Atlantic where E. huxleyi morphotype A is dominant. However, estimates of coccolith production rates were similar (0.1 1.2 coccoliths cell-1 h-1) to previous measurements made in the subpolar North Atlantic. A multivariate statistical approach found that temperature and irradiance together were best able to explain the observed variation in species distribution and abundance (Spearman's rank correlation p = 0.4, p < 0.01). Rates of calcification per cell and coccolith production, as well as community CP and E. huxleyi abundance, were all positively correlated (p < 0.05) to the strong latitudinal gradient in temperature, irradiance and calcite saturation states across Drake Passage. Broadly, our results lend support to recent suggestions that coccolithophores, especially E. huxleyi, are advancing polewards. However, our in situ observations indicate that this may owe more to sea-surface warming and increasing irradiance rather than increasing CO2 concentrations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Suggett, David J; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Boatman, Toby G; Payton, Ross; Pettay, D Tye; Johnson, Vivienne R; Warner, Mark E; Lawson, Tracy;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | A community metabolism ap... (NE/G020116/1), NSF | Collaborative Research - ... (1040940), EC | MEDSEA (265103)

    Increased seawater pCO2, and in turn 'ocean acidification' (OA), is predicted to profoundly impact marine ecosystem diversity and function this century. Much research has already focussed on calcifying reef-forming corals (Class: Anthozoa) that appear particularly susceptible to OA via reduced net calcification. However, here we show that OA-like conditions can simultaneously enhance the ecological success of non-calcifying anthozoans, which not only play key ecological and biogeochemical roles in present day benthic ecosystems but also represent a model organism should calcifying anthozoans exist as less calcified (soft-bodied) forms in future oceans. Increased growth (abundance and size) of the sea anemone (Anemonia viridis) population was observed along a natural CO2 gradient at Vulcano, Italy. Both gross photosynthesis (PG) and respiration (R) increased with pCO2 indicating that the increased growth was, at least in part, fuelled by bottom up (CO2 stimulation) of metabolism. The increase of PG outweighed that of R and the genetic identity of the symbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.) remained unchanged (type A19) suggesting proximity to the vent site relieved CO2 limitation of the anemones' symbiotic microalgal population. Our observations of enhanced productivity with pCO2, which are consistent with previous reports for some calcifying corals, convey an increase in fitness that may enable non-calcifying anthozoans to thrive in future environments, i.e. higher seawater pCO2. Understanding how CO2-enhanced productivity of non- (and less-) calcifying anthozoans applies more widely to tropical ecosystems is a priority where such organisms can dominate benthic ecosystems, in particular following localized anthropogenic stress.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    McCollin, Duncan;
    Publisher: PANGAEA
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany

    Long-term ecological data are essential for conservation and to monitor and evaluate the effects of environmental change. Bird populations have been routinely assessed on islands off the British coast for many years and here long term data for one such island, Skokholm, is evaluated for robustness in the light of some 20 changes in observers (wardens) on the island over nearly eight decades. It was found that the dataset was robust when compared to bootstrap data with no species showing significant changes in abundance in years when wardens changed. It is concluded that the breeding bird populations on Skokholm and other British offshore islands are an important scientific resource and that protocols should be enacted to ensure the archiving of records, the continuance of data collection using standardised protocols into the future, and the recognition of such long-term data for science in terms of an appropriate conservation designation.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bohoyo, Fernando; Larter, R. D.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Leat, P.T.; Maldonado, A.; Tate, A.J.; Gowland, E.J.; Arndt, Jan Erik; Dorschel, Boris; Kim, Y.D.; +8 more
    Publisher: British Antarctic Survey
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom
  • Other research product . Other ORP type
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hilling, Andrew;
    Country: United Kingdom

    The annual IoP Photography Symposium 2014 focussed around professional photographic contexts. A range of emerging and internationally significant speakers were invited to present talks as well as conduct portfolio review with final year undergraduate students.