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Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
Country: Norway
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70 Projects, page 1 of 14
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 625852
    Partners: NIKU
  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101043382
    Overall Budget: 1,998,860 EURFunder Contribution: 1,998,860 EUR
    Partners: NIKU

    The main question of this research project is: can political complexity evolve from small-scale cooperative groups? The predominant view of nomadic empires – that they are caused by contact with agricultural neighbours – cannot explain how pastoralists transitioned from small, kin-based cooperative herding groups to complex hierarchical groups with the power to conquer their sedentary neighbours. By perceiving cooperative herding groups as the building blocks of nomadic societies, this project aims to develop a theoretical explanation of pastoral political organisation ranging from acephalous societies in Africa to imperial confederations in Inner Asia. While cooperative herding has been documented, previous studies have been based on single case studies. Thus, a cross-cultural investigation of pastoral cooperation is lacking. There is also a view that livestock, as the primary source of wealth, limits the development of inequalities, making pastoralism unable to support complex or hierarchical organisations. However, evidence indicates that environmentally induced livestock losses exacerbate rather than limit the development of wealth inequalities. COMPLEXITY rectifies this situation through three steps. First, by combining a systematic literature review of the ethnographic material with information in the eHRAF World Cultures database, COMPLEXITY will cross-culturally document the prevalence of cooperative herding groups. Second, by using a pluralistic methodology, e.g., experimental economic games, observations and interviews, COMPLEXITY will comparatively investigate to what degree pastoral cooperation is structured by evolutionary factors – such as kinship, reciprocity, social network structure, and norms – and investigate how cooperation affect pastoral performance and inequality. Third, by combining empirical data with modelling techniques, COMPLEXITY investigates whether cooperative herding groups can be considered prototypes for more complex organisations.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101079234
    Overall Budget: 899,410 EURFunder Contribution: 899,410 EUR
    Partners: NIKU, IHTM, INRAE

    BIOLAWEB aims at building a sustainable cooperation between the Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade (UB-ICTM), and leading EU institutions – The French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE, France) and the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA, Norway), thereby strengthening the research and innovation capacity of UB-ICTM in biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring. BIOLAWEB will (1) bring UB-ICTM up to current standards with respect to methods that are currently applied across the European Union, and (2) apply newly emerging metabarcoding and eDNA technology to develop new and improved methods using eDNA. In order to strengthen research and innovation capacity, BIOLAWEB will establish a research management office at UB-ICTM to support project application, management and reporting at international level. Staff exchange, common field and laboratory work, and a variety of courses will be used for an effective knowledge transfer from the partnering institutions to UB-ICTM. Recently emerging technology will be implemented to develop new tools for water management, which will be useful across Europe. The methods developed in BIOLAWEB will pave the ground for further research and innovation in the assessment of biodiversity and ecological status. BIOLAWEB foresees that the methods developed during the project lifetime will later be applied in regular watercourse monitoring in Serbia and the region. The implementation of the BIOLAWEB results will raise the research profile of coordinator and partner institutions and contribute to UB-ICTM's vision of becoming a lighthouse for attracting the best talents and tackling the burning issues of environmental assessment.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 293422
    Partners: WU, FHG, FVB, NIKU