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CNRS

French National Centre for Scientific Research
Country: France
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3,424 Projects, page 1 of 685
  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 835530
    Overall Budget: 257,620 EURFunder Contribution: 257,620 EUR
    Partners: CNRS

    The ability to navigate the environment has a profound impact on animal survival and reproductive success. Sex and species differences in spatial abilities are widespread, but understanding the mechanisms underlying variation in spatial cognition and how these differences arise through evolution remains challenging. I propose an interdisciplinary project aimed at understanding the sex and species differences in spatial cognition of tropical poison frogs from ecological, cognitive, neurobiological, and evolutionary perspectives. Poison frogs are ideal for understanding the evolution and neural mechanisms of vertebrate spatial cognition because sexes and closely related species show contrasting life histories and spatial behaviors. Specifically, species differ in whether females or males provide parental care to tadpoles and have larger home ranges. This offers a rare opportunity to link the sex and species differences in life history with differences in spatio-cognitive abilities at the behavioral and the neural levels. Recently, I have used tracking to study variation in frog space use, developed assays for quantifying navigational performance under natural conditions, and demonstrated that poison frogs rely on spatial memory for navigation. Building on this groundwork, I will collaborate with experts in behavioral neuroscience and movement ecology to (1) reveal sex and species differences in poison frog spatial cognition, (2) identify neural mechanisms governing sex differences in spatial cognition using cutting-edge neuroscience tools, and (3) integrate ecological, behavioral, and neural aspects of poison frog spatial behavior using modeling. FrogsInSpace is an ambitious yet realistic project that will establish a novel study system and integrate a broad range of expertise to address important questions in comparative cognition. It will be critical for my development as an expert working at the interface between animal ecology, cognition, and neurobiology.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101018877
    Overall Budget: 257,620 EURFunder Contribution: 257,620 EUR
    Partners: CNRS

    Primates interact with each other primarily through visual and acoustic communication. However, while primate social vision has been extensively studied, little is known about the neuronal basis of acoustic communication in primates. More specifically, we ignore how oxytocin, a neurohormone that regulates social behavior in mammals and a promising therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders, modulates acoustic communication. Based on preliminary evidence, I hypothesize that oxytocin (1) acts in the auditory cortex to increase signal to noise ratio in response to social auditory stimuli, (2) is required for normal communication behavior and (3) is critical to brain-to-brain coordination between two interacting individuals. This Global Fellowship proposal has been designed to unveil how oxytocin influences primates’ acoustic communication at the neuronal and behavioral levels. To do so, I will combine state of the art techniques, such as chemogenetic manipulation of oxytocin neurons and wireless electrophysiology, in marmoset monkeys. This highly vocal primate is key to this project and a rapidly growing animal model in neuroscience. I will learn to work with them during my Outgoing phase in San Diego (USA) and transfer this knowledge back to Europe during the incoming phase, by participating in the inception of a marmoset laboratory in Lyon (France). This project will greatly enhance my career opportunities in academia as it will give me a unique theoretical and technical background. It will place me in a good spot to explore innovative research pathways, with a great potential scientific impact. All the outcomes from MarmOT will be published strictly following the Open Science objective of H2020. Finally, I propose innovative ways to disseminate the results of my experiments in order to reach all types of audience, by collaborating with a local Zoo or contacting Youtubers.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 894434
    Overall Budget: 184,708 EURFunder Contribution: 184,708 EUR
    Partners: CNRS

    Energy transfer constitutes a basic step of photosynthesis, photocatalysis and operation of optoelectronic devices in which the energy of a photon absorbed by one entity (donor) is transferred to another entity (acceptor) where it is further processed. The fundamentals of this process are routinely studied using optical-based methods, which are sensitive to its spectroscopic and temporal characteristics. However, these techniques are diffraction-limited, leading to spatial averaging of the fine details occurring at the molecular scale, and do not allow to study how energy transfer and its dynamics are affected by minute change variations of the atomic-scale environment of the donor-acceptor pair. Therefore, crucial questions remain to be addressed: Can we probe and control ET as a function of the precise nanometre distances and orientation of the single donor-acceptor pairs? What is the nanometre-scale interplay between different ET mechanisms? How are the dynamics, and thus the efficiency, of ET affected by these parameters? Can we probe more complex behaviours involving ET or mimic light-harvesting systems based on artificial supramolecular architectures? To reach the required scale a novel approach will be developed that combines the atomic-scale precision of a low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy with time-resolved tip-enhanced photoluminescence. This original technical association will enable studies of energy transfer dynamics between individual molecules with simultaneous pm and ps at the unprecedented scale. The fundamental knowledge gained during the project, as well as technological development, will lead to a better understanding of the atomic-scale phenomena driving photosynthesis and optoelectronic devices operations. Furthermore, PRETZEL will offer extensive interdisciplinary training for a young researcher, creating the base for a highly successful scientific career.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 715757
    Overall Budget: 1,499,170 EURFunder Contribution: 1,499,170 EUR
    Partners: CNRS

    The MECHANO-FLUO project aims at preparing mechanofluorochromic molecules and materials, understand and tune their photophysical and mechanofluorochromic properties, and implement these new materials as quantitative mechanical force sensors. Mechanofluorochromism relates to fluorescent compounds in the solid state for which emission spectrum changes upon application of a mechanical stimulus. The interest for this phenomenon has enormously increased for the last 4 years but studies aiming at understanding the structure-mechanofluorochromic properties relationships are still in their infancy and many examples remain purely qualitative. In the MECHANO-FLUO project, I will synthesize a library of mechanofluorochromic molecules responsive to different mechanical stimuli (pressure, shearing), with various sensitivities. I aim at relating the molecular structure to the sensitivity to different mechanical stimuli. Two aspects seldom explored in the literature so far will be particularly studied. The first one is the study at the micro- to nanoscale, so as to obtain an amplification of the mechanofluorochromic response and develop ultra-sensitive mechanofluorochromic probes. The second one is the quantification of the mechanofluorochromic response, from the nano- to the macroscopic scales. Two applications will be investigated. The first one is stress metrology: fluorescent materials with a quantitative mechanofluorochromic response could give access to the stress level in various materials and thus constitute an entirely new method for in situ control of the damaging of materials classically used in the nuclear industry or the aeronautics. The second one is mechanobiology: I hope to provide a tool for direct force measurement at the cellular scale, which would have tremendous implications for the comprehension of biological phenomena where mechanotransduction is implied, especially embryogenesis and tumor proliferation.