Actions
  • shareshare
  • link
  • cite
  • add
add
Other research product . 2019

Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance

Stratmann, Tanja; Lins, Lidia; Purser, Autun; Marcon, Yann; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Ravara, Ascensão; Cunha, Marina R.; +5 Authors
Open Access
English
Published: 29 Jan 2019
Abstract

Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the “DISturbance and reCOLonization” (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22 % of the seafloor within a 10.8 km2 circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54 % of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6 % inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5 % lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The “total system throughput” (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 × 10−3 ± 1.58 × 10−5 mmol C m−2 d−1). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56 %. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.

78 references, page 1 of 8

Amon, D. J., Hilário, A., Martínez Arbizu, P., and Smith, C. R.: Observations of organic falls from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, Mar. Biodivers., 47, 311-321, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-016-0572-4, 2017.

Bailey, D. M., Ruhl, H. A., and Smith, K. L.: Long-term change in benthopelagic fish abundance in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean, Ecology, 87, 549-555, https://doi.org/10.1890/04-1832, 2006.

Bluhm, H.: Re-establishment of an abyssal megabenthic community after experimental physical disturbance of the seafloor, DeepSea Res. Pt. II, 48, 3841-3868, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967- 0645(01)00070-4, 2001.

Bluhm, H. and Gebruk, A. V.: Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) of the Peru Basin - ecological and taxonomic remarks based on underwater images, Mar. Ecol., 20, 167-195, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0485.1999.00072.x, 1999.

Boetius, A.: RV SONNE SO242/2. Cruise Report/Fahrtbericht, DISCOL revisited, Guayaquil: 28 August 2015 - Guayaquil: 1 October 2015, SO242/2: JPI Oceans Ecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Mining, Bremen, 2015. [OpenAIRE]

Borowski, C.: Physically disturbed deep-sea macrofauna in the Peru Basin, southeast Pacific, revisited 7 years after the experimental impact, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 48, 3809-3839, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(01)00069-8, 2001. [OpenAIRE]

Borowski, C. and Thiel, H.: Deep-sea macrofaunal impacts of a large-scale physical disturbance experiment in the Southeast Pacific, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 45, 55-81, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00073-8, 1998. [OpenAIRE]

Brey, T., Müller-Wiegmann, C., Zittier, Z. M. C., and Hagen, W.: Body composition in aquatic organisms - A global data bank of relationships between mass, elemental composition and energy content, J. Sea Res., 64, 334-340, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2010.05.002, 2010.

Childress, J. J., Taylor, S. M., Cailliert, G. M., and Price, M. H.: Patterns of growth, energy utilization and reproduction in some meso- and bathypelagic fishes off Southern California, Mar. Biol., 61, 27-40, 1980.

Clausen, I. and Riisgård, H. U.: Growth, filtration and respiration in the mussel Mytilus edulis: No evidence for physiological regulation of the filter-pump to nutritional needs, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 141, 37-45, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps141037, 1996. [OpenAIRE]

Funded by
EC| MIDAS
Project
MIDAS
Managing Impacts of Deep-seA reSource exploitation
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 603418
  • Funding stream: FP7 | SP1 | ENV
,
NWO| Structure and (mal)functioning of an abyssal food web following a large-scale disturbance revealed with stable isotope tracer experiments and food-web modelling, FCT| SFRH/BPD/107805/2015
Project
SFRH/BPD/107805/2015
Bivalves and their associated symbionts: disclosing the Biodiversity, Connectivity and Interactions – the case of the thyasirids
  • Funder: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P. (FCT)
  • Project Code: SFRH/BPD/107805/2015
  • Funding stream: FARH
Related to Research communities
European Marine Science
Download from
moresidebar