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Other research product . 2019

Circular approach in fish industries

Perä, Markus;
Open Access
Published: 01 Jan 2019
Country: Finland
The growing population requires a lot of food in order to sustain itself. Therefore, also, more fish need to be caught and farmed. Since a large amount of fish captured cannot be used commercially, it is usually thrown away, which in turn can be hazardous to the environment not to mention sea birds. By catch is also caught when fishing. A circular approach to this fish waste means seeing this waste as something that should be used instead of being thrown away. Usually fish waste if not discharged overboard, is converted into fish meal or fish oil. It is often costly and time-consuming. The heterogeneous nature of fish waste is an added challenge because finding solutions that work all the time with all types of fish waste is not possible. The lab-scale applications mentioned in this thesis include, but are not limited to, turning fish waste into fertilizer, feed, nutrients, peptides, enzymes, hydrolysates, biomaterials, wastewater treatment products, and biofuels. This thesis was a literature review, and no lab work was donewhen making it.Fertilizer and feed are relatively straight-forward to do, but they require more time to be aged than their commercial counterparts. Nutrients, peptides, hydrolysates, and enzymes can also be extracted from the fish waste; however, in the case of mincing the fish waste it can only replace part of the fish meat. Peptides showed interesting properties but required more research to be identified precisely. Hydroly-sates could be used for capturing moisture in the food industry, but their inner bitterness needs to be masked beforehand. Enzymes can be extracted, but their performance varies; an enzyme for dehairing leather works great, but an enzyme to make cheese creates a cheese that cannot hold moisture inside it. Fish waste can also be added into packaging materials, where the biodegradability increase, but this comes at the cost of weaker strength and an inability to hold moisture inside the package. Their properties can be improved by adding additional substances into the material. Fish waste can also be used to manufacture sorbents for treating wastewater and in the articles they could remove, for example, azodyes and lead. Fish waste can also be converted into biofuels. However, they increase some emissions, while simultaneously reducing others and they cannot be stored as long as conventionally made diesel. Fish waste has many potential applications, but their large-scale implementation requires massive investments in a circular economy.

fi=Kemiantekniikka|sv=Kemi|en=Chemical Engineering|, circular economy, fish, fish industry, fish waste, fish waste applications, Environmental Chemistry and Technology

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