Species checklists and dichotomous keys are valuable tools that provide many services for ecological studies and management through tracking native and non-native species through time. We developed nine drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys for 196 inland fishes of Texas, consisting of 171 native fishes and 25 non-native fishes. Our checklists were updated from previous checklists and revised using reports of new established native and non-native fishes in Texas, reports of new fish occurrences among drainages, and changes in species taxonomic nomenclature. We provided the first dichotomous keys for major drainage basins in Texas. Among the 171 native inland fishes, 6 species are considered extinct or extirpated, 13 species are listed as threatened or endangered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and 59 species are listed as Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) by the state of Texas. Red River drainage basin was the most speciose with 120 fishes. Rio Grande & Pecos drainage basin had the greatest number of threatened or endangered fishes (N = 7) and the greatest number of SGCN fishes (N = 28). We revised drainage basin occurrences for 77 species. Drainage basin checklists and dichotomous keys provide finer resolution of species distributions within the geopolitical boundaries of Texas and can reduce probability of errors in fish identification errors by removing species not occurring within a natural boundary.