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OceanRep; Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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Atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean

Authors: Susann Tegtmeier; Christa Marandino; Yue Jia; Birgit Quack; Anoop S. Mahajan;

Atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean

Abstract

Abstract. The Indian Ocean is coupled to atmospheric dynamics, transport and chemical composition via several unique mechanisms, such as the seasonally varying monsoon circulation. During the winter monsoon season, high pollution levels are regularly observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean, while during the summer monsoon, clean air dominates the atmospheric composition, leading to distinct chemical regimes. The changing atmospheric composition over the Indian Ocean can interact with oceanic biogeochemical cycles and impact marine ecosystems, resulting in potential climate feedbacks. Here, we review current progress in detecting and understanding atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean and its local and global impacts. The review takes into account results from recent Indian Ocean ship campaigns, satellite measurements, station data and information on continental and oceanic trace gas emissions. The distribution of all major pollutants and greenhouse gases shows pronounced differences between the landmass source regions and the Indian Ocean with strong gradients over the coastal areas. Surface pollution and ozone are highest during the winter monsoon over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea coastal waters due to air mass advection from the Indo-Gangetic Plain and continental outflow from Southeast Asia. We observe, however, that unusual types of wind patterns can lead to pronounced deviations of the typical trace gas distributions. For example, the ozone distribution maxima shift to different regions under different wind scenarios. The distribution of greenhouse gases over the Indian Ocean shows many similarities when compared to the pollution fields, but also some differences of the latitudinal and seasonal variations resulting from their long lifetimes and biogenic sources. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases such as methane show positive trends over the Indian Ocean, but long-term changes of pollution and ozone, and in particular how they are driven by changing emissions and transport patterns, require further investigation in the future. Although we know that changing atmospheric composition and perturbations within the Indian Ocean affect each other, the impacts of atmospheric pollution on oceanic biogeochemistry and trace gas cycling is severely understudied. We highlight potential mechanisms, future research topics and observational requirements that need to be explored in order to fully understand interactions and feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere in the Indian Ocean region.

Countries
Germany, France
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Pollution Global wind patterns Advection Greenhouse gas media_common.quotation_subject Biogeochemistry Environmental science Atmospheric sciences Monsoon Air mass media_common Trace gas

Keywords

Atmospheric Science

  • BIP!
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    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    3
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    3
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
3
Top 10%
Average
Average
gold
Funded by
NSERC
Project
  • Funder: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
,
EC| VISUALMEDIA
Project
VISUALMEDIA
Immersive and Interactive Real Time 3D Social Media Graphics Environments for the Broadcast Industry
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 687800
  • Funding stream: H2020 | IA
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