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The color of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

Authors: Lu, Peng; Leppäranta, Matti; Cheng, Bin; Li, Zhijun; Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg;

The color of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

Abstract

Pond color, which creates the visual appearance of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice in summer, is quantitatively investigated using a two-stream radiative transfer model for ponded sea ice. The upwelling irradiance from the pond surface is determined and then its spectrum is transformed into RGB (red, green, blue) color space using a colorimetric method. The dependence of pond color on various factors such as water and ice properties and incident solar radiation is investigated. The results reveal that increasing underlying ice thickness Hi enhances both the green and blue intensities of pond color, whereas the red intensity is mostly sensitive to Hi for thin ice (Hi < 1.5 m) and to pond depth Hp for thick ice (Hi > 1.5 m), similar to the behavior of melt-pond albedo. The distribution of the incident solar spectrum F0 with wavelength affects the pond color rather than its intensity. The pond color changes from dark blue to brighter blue with increasing scattering in ice, and the influence of absorption in ice on pond color is limited. The pond color reproduced by the model agrees with field observations for Arctic sea ice in summer, which supports the validity of this study. More importantly, the pond color has been confirmed to contain information about meltwater and underlying ice, and therefore it can be used as an index to retrieve Hi and Hp. Retrievals of Hi for thin ice (Hi < 1 m) agree better with field measurements than retrievals for thick ice, but those of Hp are not good. The analysis of pond color is a new potential method to obtain thin ice thickness in summer, although more validation data and improvements to the radiative transfer model will be needed in future.

Country
Finland
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Atmospheric sciences Sea ice growth processes Sea ice Melt pond Meltwater Sea ice concentration geography geography.geographical_feature_category Arctic ice pack Oceanography Sea ice thickness RGB color model Environmental science

Library of Congress Subject Headings: lcsh:Environmental sciences lcsh:GE1-350 lcsh:QE1-996.5 lcsh:Geology

Keywords

TRANSMISSION, NM, FRACTION, ALBEDO, THICKNESS, MICROWAVE, 1172 Environmental sciences, Earth-Surface Processes, Water Science and Technology, OPTICAL-PROPERTIES, EVOLUTION, MODEL, SUMMER

55 references, page 1 of 6

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Flocco, D., Schroeder, D., Feltham, D. L., and Hunke, E. C.: Impact of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice simulations from 1990 to 2007, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09032, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JC008195, 2012. [OpenAIRE]

Flocco, D., Feltham, D. L., Bailey, E., and Schroeder, D.: The refreezing of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans, 120, 647-659, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010140, 2015. [OpenAIRE]

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Holland, M. M., Bailey, D. A., Briegleb, B. P., Light, B., and Hunke, E.C.: Improved sea ice shortwave radiation physics in CCSM4: the impact of melt ponds and aerosols on arctic sea ice, J. Climate, 25, 1413-1430, 2012.

Huang, W., Lei, R., Ilkka, M., Li, Q., Wang, Y., and Li, Z.: The physical structures of snow and sea ice in the Arctic section of 150 -180 W during the summer of 2010, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 32, 57-67, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-013-0314-4, 2013.

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    18
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
18
Top 10%
Average
Top 10%
gold
Funded by
AKA| Towards better tailored weather and marine forecasts in the Arctic to serve sustainable economic activities and infrastructure (TWASE), EC| SPICES
Project
SPICES
Space-borne observations for detecting and forecasting sea ice cover extremes
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 640161
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
Validated by funder | iis
Related to Research communities
European Marine Science
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